8

The final years (c. AD 350-450+)

The later fourth century

The latest historical references to London as a Roman city are made in connection with two Roman expeditions to restore order to the province during the 360s. Problems in 360 were followed in 367 by a near complete breakdown of order following an organized barbarian incursion. London clearly remained the appropriate administrative centre for imperial recovery operations, and from these references we also know that the city had at some stage gained the honorific title of Augusta. The archaeological counterpart to these references, and the physical demonstration of Rome’s continued commitment to the province and its urban order, were the city bastions. Bastions were added to the walls of several Romano-British cities during the middle years of the fourth century. In London D-shaped bastions were added to the eastern side of the city c. AD 351-75 and were set along the wall, from the Walbrook to the Tower, at roughly 50-55 m intervals (Fig. 53) (Maloney 1979; 1983; 108; Marsden 1980, 172). A badly truncated masonry structure was found attached to the outer face of the city wall in recent excavations at 85 London Wall and might have been part of the foundation of a bastion, the westernmost in the series (Heathcote 1989, 52). The bastions on the western side of the city were most probably medieval additions; for reasons of economy or indifference this part of the city wall was not altered in the fourth century. It is possible that some bastions may, however, have been added along the eastern end of the riverside wall (Maloney 1983). Similarities in construction suggest that alterations to the town gates might have been contemporary with the construction of the bastions, and a new flat-bottomed city ditch was certainly dug at this time. The extension of the western end of the riverside city wall found at Baynard’s Castle may also have been built in these years (Hill et al. 1980; Sheldon and Tyers 1983), and the watch-tower at Shadwell was probably abandoned soon after AD 360 (Johnson 1975). It is also conceivable that Southwark had been provided with a defensive circuit which was reorganized at this date; a large east-west aligned ditch, in excess of 1.5m deep and 5m wide, was found in

-124-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Roman London
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 150

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.