The Renaissance and Seventeenth-Century Rationalism

By G. H.R. Parkinson | Go to book overview

NOTES

I cite Bacon from the standard edition of J. Spedding, R.L. Ellis and D.D. Heath, The Works of Francis Bacon, 14 vols (London, 1857-74; Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt, Friedrich Frommann, 1963). Bacon’s Philosophical Works are in vols 1-5 (Latin and English) and De Sapientia Veterum, misleadingly included in vol. 6 (pp. 605-764). References are to volume and page (as a rule both to the English and Latin), except when quoting from Novum Organum, where I have usually indicated Book and Aphorism.

1
Vorlesungen über die Geschichte der Philosophie, in Werke, ed. E. Moldenhauer and K.M. Michel (Frankfurt-am-Main, 1971), pp. xviii-xx, xx, 76ff. Hegel repeatedly calls Bacon ‘der Heerführer der Erfahrungsphilosophen’ (‘the armyleader of the philosophers of experience’) and links his name to Locke and the so-called empiricists. Kuno Fischer, Franz Baco von Verulam: die Realphilosophie und ihr Zeitalter (Leipzig, 1856; 2nd edn, 1875), and Wilhelm Windeband and H. Heimsoeth, Lehrbuch der Geschichte der Philosophie (Tübingen, 1930), pp. 328ff.), do not depart substantially from Hegel’s views. Compare also H. E. Grimm, Zür Geschichte des Erkenntnisproblems. Von Baco zu Hume (Leipzig, 1890), and W. Frost, Bacon und die Naturphilosophie (München, 1927). Two very notable exceptions to the then prevalent approach are to be found in French authors: Charles de Rémusat, Bacon, sa vie, son temps, sa philosophie jusqu'à nos jours (Paris, 1857), and Charles Adam, Philosophie de François Bacon (Paris, 1890), esp. pp. 328ff.
2
cf. D.F. Norton, ‘The Myth of British Empiricism’, History of European Ideas 1 (1981) 331-4; Shapiro [4.75]; H.G.van Leeuwen, The Problem of Certainty in English Thought (1630-1690) (The Hague, Nijhoff, 1963).
3
cf. Nicholas Jardine, ‘Epistemology of the Sciences’, in C.B. Schmitt and Q. Skinner (eds), The Cambridge History of Renaissance Philosophy (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1988), pp. 685-712, at p. 685. Compare also M. N. Morris, ‘Science as Scientia’, Physis 23 (1981) 171-96, and S. Ross, ‘“Scientist”: the Story of a Word’, Annals of Science 18 (1964) 65-85.
4
cf. R. Yeo, ‘An Idol of the Market Place: Baconianism in 19th-century England’, History of Science 23 (1985) 251-98; Pérez-Ramos [4.62], 7-30.
5
Apud R.C. Cochrane, ‘Francis Bacon and the Rise of the Mechanical Arts in 18th-century England’, Annals of Science 11 (1956) 137-56, at p. 156. Compare also A. Finch, On the Inductive Philosophy: Including a Parallel between Lord Bacon and A. Comte as Philosophers (London, 1872).
6
I. Lakatos, ‘Changes in the Problem of Inductive Logic’, in his The Problem of Inductive Logic (Amsterdam, 1968), pp. 315-427, at p. 318; A. Koyré, Etudes d’histoire de la pensée scientifique (Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, 1966). To speak of Bacon as one of the founding fathers of modern science, Koyré argues on p. 7, would be a mauvaise plaisanterie.
7
Francis Bacon. From Magic to Science [4.70]. This book is a turning point as regards the revival of Baconian studies in our century.
8
For an example of this kind of literature, cf. Farrington [4.35]; Christopher Hill, The Intellectual Origins of the English Revolution (Oxford, 1965); Frances

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