Dutch American Voices: Letters from the United States, 1850-1930

By Herbert J. Brinks | Go to book overview

III
Rural to Urban

Introduction

Although all the correspondents whose letters appear in this part emigrated from rural villages, only half of them ( Niemeijer, Zondervan, and Plaisier) were clearly farmhands in the Netherlands. The other three may have worked on the land during harvest seasons, but they were also skilled or semiskilled craftsmen prepared to perform a variety of tasks, as was commonly the case in the preindustrial era. 1 Between 1835 and 1880 about 60 percent of the Dutch immigrants were defined as either skilled and semiskilled or, simply, laborers. In general they were more inclined and better prepared to settle in cities than their cohorts who had worked exclusively on farms. According to I. J. Brugmans, village craftsmen and laborers were also healthier, better educated, and less poverty-stricken than factory hands. 2 Given their general flexibility and work habits, the village workers were well stationed to become successful immigrants. By contrast, factory workers were probably too poor to emigrate. In any case, they made up only a small fragment of the Dutch populace before 1900 and constituted only 4 percent of the immigrants before 1880. 3

Two of the six correspondents represented in this part became farmers. Klaas Niemeijer raised vegetables for the Chicago market from 1907 to 1921, and then he became a wholesale produce dealer, traveling between West Michigan and Chicago. Most of his descendants are located within a belt of Dutch enclaves strung out along the south and southwestern

____________________
1
G. H. Ligterink, De landverhuizers: Emigratie naar Noord-Amerika uit het GeldersWestfaalse grensgebied tussen de jaren, 1830-1850 ( Zutphen, The Netherlands: De Walburg Pers, 1981), pp. 13-24.
2
I. J. Brugmans, De arbeidende klasse in Nederland in de I9e eeuw, pp. 167-94.
3
Swierenga, " Dutch International Labour Migration to North America in the Nineteenth Century," in Dutch Immigration to North America, ed. Ganzevoort and Boekelman, pp. I-34.

-221-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Dutch American Voices: Letters from the United States, 1850-1930
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Dutch American Voices - Letters from the United States, 1850-1930 *
  • Contents vii
  • Illustrations xi
  • Preface xiii
  • Introduction i
  • I - Rural to Rural: Sand-Soil Emigrants 23
  • II - Rural to Rural: Clay-Soil Emigrants 103
  • III - Rural to Urban 221
  • IV - Urban to Urban 337
  • V - Detached Immigrants 421
  • Appendixes 455
  • Selected Bibliography 457
  • Index of Personal Names 461
  • Index of Place-Names 468
  • Topical Index 472
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 480

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.