Department of Defense Political Appointments: Positions and Process

By Cheryl Y. Marcum; Lauren R. Sager Weinstein et al. | Go to book overview

Summary

Political appointees constitute the heart of civilian leadership in the Pentagon. Individuals who are appointed by the President and confirmed by the U.S. Senate occupy a total of 45 positions in the top echelons of the Department of Defense (DoD), including the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) and the military departments—up from 12 a half-century ago.1


The Political Appointment and Confirmation Process:
A Help or a Hindrance to Attracting Individuals
to Serve in Senior DoD Positions?

As the number of political appointee positions has grown over the past 50 years, so too have the processes and procedures that individuals must undergo to gain Senate confirmation. Candidates today must provide extensive background and financial information to the White House before they are nominated. Once nominated, individuals must provide even more information on additional topics to the FBI, the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), and Senate investigators. Once confirmed, political appointees must then adhere to a complex set of federal ethics and conflict-of-interest laws passed in recent decades—legislation that limits their financial and investment options when they are in office while constraining their business and employment opportunities after they leave government service.

At the same time, political appointee positions are taking longer to fill than has been the case in the past; the amount of time such positions go unfilled or are occupied by “acting” officials is rising; and the average time a political appointee spends in a DoD position is shrinking. Today's political appointee nominees face a confirmation process that lasts an average of 8.5 months—more than triple the wait their counterparts endured just three decades ago. Moreover, political appointee positions are vacant some 20 percent of the time today, up from nearly nil 50 years ago. And turnover is high; the most common tenure for the most senior DoD officials ranges between 11 and 20 months.

____________________
1
Public Law 105–261 (October 17, 1998) reduced the number of authorized Assistant Secretary of Defense positions from ten to nine, thereby reducing the number of authorized political appointee positions requiring Senate confirmation in the DoD from 45 to 44. As of May 1999, official OSD title reports reflected 45 such positions in the DoD.

-xi-

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Department of Defense Political Appointments: Positions and Process
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page *
  • Preface iii
  • Contents v
  • Figures vii
  • Tables ix
  • Summary xi
  • Acknowledgments xvii
  • Acronyms xix
  • 1 - Introduction 1
  • 2 - Trends in DOD Political Appointees 3
  • 3 - The Appointment Process and Rules Governing Political Appointees 19
  • 4 - Conclusion 41
  • A - An Overview of the Federal Workforce System 45
  • B - DOD Pas Position Data Sources 49
  • C - Pas Position Titles in Osd from 1947 to 1999 by Function 53
  • D - Chronology of Pas Positions Assigned to Osd Functional Areas 69
  • E - Authorized Osd Pas Positions by Function (May 31, 1999) 71
  • References 73
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