Transnational Crime in the Americas: An Inter-American Dialogue Book

By Tom Farer | Go to book overview

NOTES

The author would like to thank the Fulbright Program in Belgium for the EU-US Senior Scholarship that provided the opportunity to research this chapter.

1.
United States. Congress. House of Representatives Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control. Cocaine Production in the Andes (Washington D.C.: GPO, 1989), 16.
2.
U.S. Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for law enforcement and crime Jonathan Winer, quoted in: Peter Andreas, “U.S.-Mexico: Open Markets, Closed Border,” Foreign Policy 103 (Summer 1996), 53.
3.
Disputed borders in the Western Hemisphere have seldom led to outright conflict in recent times, Ecuador’s short-lived 1995 war with Peru being a notable exception. By contrast, Germany’s borders have been redrawn several times this century, most recently when West and East were reunited. Austria’s independence was recognized only in 1955, prior to which it had been swallowed by the German Third Reich and later divided into four zones occupied by the USSR, the United States, Britain, and France. Further east, the boundaries and national identities of those who live within them are even more complex. In Italy, a substantial minority of northern Italians would, for their own economic and political benefit, like to see their region secede from the rest of the country. Geographically distinct from mainland Europe, the British Isles have some of the world’s most idiosyncratic national border arrangements. England and Scotland, despite the 1707 Act of Union, have substantially different legal systems. The current frontier between two EU member states, Britain and Ireland, was made only in 1922 with partition, and Ireland did not become a sovereign state until 1937.
4.
According to Savona, Sicilian Mafiosi entered the United States during the early 1960s, establishing a nucleus there which subsequently acted as an intermediary in heroin-trafficking from the Middle East. In the mid-1980s, it was estimated that 70 percent of heroin entering the United States came through Sicilian connections. See Ernesto U. Savona, “The Organized Crime/Drug Connection: National and International Perspectives,” in H. Traver and M.S. Gaylord, eds., Drugs, Law and the State, (Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 1992), 120.
5.
Phil Williams and Ernesto U. Savona, The United Nations and Transnational Organized Crime (London: Frank Cass, 1996), 14, 17,
6.
UCLAF, Annual Report 1996, Brussels: European Commission (1997).
7.
Although initially concerned with terrorism, the remits of the Trevi Working Groups eventually covered public order matters and, from the mid-1980s, transnational organized crime, including drug trafficking, bank robbery, and arms trafficking. See Monica den Boer, “Justice and Home Affairs: Cooperation without Integration,” in: H. Wallace and W. Wallace, eds., Policy-Making in the European Union, 3rd edition, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996), 394-5.
8.
Most well known at this level in the sphere of drug control is the “Frankfurt approach,” a transnational movement of city authorities (including Frankfurt, Ham-burg, Amsterdam, and Zurich) that supports policies that attempt to control rather than limit the use of drugs, according to the principles of harm reduction. The “Stockholm approach” was prepared as a response to the Frankfurt resolution when the heads of 21 European capitals signed a resolution entitled “European Cities against Drugs’ which took a more traditional line against drugs and eschewed the reclassification of any drugs under the UN conventions.
9.
In an attempt to accelerate the process, Belgium, France, Germany, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands signed the Schengen Agreement in 1985, which was to involve the abolition of virtually all controls at mutual borders. Other countries have since joined the core five; most of the Scandinavian countries will probably join soon.

-113-

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