facade see ELEVATION
A dummy door in stone found in Egyptian tombs. The soul of the deceased was believed to emerge through this door, in order to partake of the funerary offerings placed in the burial chamber.
The design of the false door underwent certain changes. During the Old Kingdom, the panel of the door was recessed in rectangular flat surrounds with plain lintels and jambs which were sometimes inscribed. A cylindrical roll underneath the lintel was placed on top of the innermost panel (it has been interpreted as the rolled up mat which could be let down to be used as a sunscreen in real doors). From the Middle Kingdom on, the false doors have a torus frame and are surmounted by a cornice. Some false doors are in fact connected with small chambers (see SERDAB) which contain a statue of the deceased person. In other cases the image of the dead owner of the tomb is standing or sitting in front of the false door.
Festival house see BÎT-AKITU
The repeated burning of fires on any one place leaves permanent marks in the soil, and the emplacement of the fire can therefore be ascertained fairly easily by
False door, from a VI Dynasty tomb at Saqqara
excavation. In private houses, this was mainly in the courtyard—most of the cooking was done in the open, as there was no provision for the escape of smoke, except in Anatolia where the winters are much colder and encourage indoor living. Fireplaces can have different shapes (round, oval, rectangular, horseshoe), and can either be sunk into the ground and smeared with clay or built up in order to offer added protection from the flames, as well as improving the ventilation and providing support for the cooking utensils. As most activities in the kitchen were done by people crouching on the floor, the high built-up fireplace was very rare.