Responsible Conduct of Research

By Adil E. Shamoo; David B. Resnik | Go to book overview

11
Genetics and Human Reproduction

This chapter provides background and an overview of genetics and human reproduction, including its scientific, social, and historical context. The chapter mentions ethical issues that arise in different areas of research related to genetics and human reproduction, including genetic testing and screening, genetic counseling, prenatal genetic testing, preimplantation genetic testing, surrogate pregnancy, reproductive cloning, somatic gene therapy, stem cell research, and genetic engineering of plants, animals, and humans. It also outlines some traditional critiques of attempts to control or manipulate human genetics and reproduction.

This chapter and chapter 12 address topics that are quite different from those covered in the rest of the book. Chapters 2 through 10 address ethical problems and issues that arise within the process of research itself, and do not discuss in any significant depth issues that arise because of the effects of research on society or the social context of research. Many issues, such as concerns about authorship, plagiarism, data management, publication, and peer review, have important impacts on the integrity of research but often have little direct impact on society. Other issues, such as intellectual property and the use of animal and human subjects, raise important issues for researchers and for society. This chapter and the next address topics that arise when scientists consider the social impact of research and its social context. This chapter considers ethical issues in genetics and human reproduction. (Much of the material covered in this chapter will be familiar to students of the biological sciences, and we apologize in advance for any material that seems introductory. However, many students of physics, chemistry, psychology, the humanities, and other disciplines are not familiar with some of the basic facts pertaining to genetics and human reproduction. Moreover, it is impossible to understand the ethical and political issues without having a firm grasp of the relevant scientific, historical, and social facts.)


THE DARWINIAN REVOLUTION

Charles Darwin's (1809–1882) theory of evolution by natural selection was one of the most significant scientific developments in the nineteenth century. The publication of Darwin's book The Origin of Species (1859) had profound effects on the biological and social sciences as well as philosophy, politics, literature, and religion. Before this time, most scientists believed that all species, including human beings, did not change or evolve over time. Species were regarded as fixed forms or archetypes created and made by God (or Nature), and human beings were regarded as fundamentally different from animals because

-233-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Responsible Conduct of Research
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 345

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.