NUTRITION DURING INFANCY
Growth and Development
Assessment of Nutrition Status
Energy and Nutrient Needs
Nutrition-Related Concerns During Infancy
Concepts to Remember
▪ What are the gains in length, weight, and head circumference that can be expected for normal, term infants during the first year of life?
▪ How would you describe the velocity of growth during this period?
▪ How is growth measured and monitored?
▪ Describe the physical, neurocognitive, and psychosocial developmental changes that occur from birth to I year of age.
At no time are extrauterine growth and development as rapid as during infancy. Although slow by comparison to the rate of fetal growth, gains during infancy are rapid in relation to those in the years that follow.
Differences in patterns of growth among individual infants are a function of genetic, hormonal, nutritional, and environmental influences. The mean birth weight of North American infants is between 3.0 and 3.4 kg (7 and 7.5 lb), and average birth length is approximately 50 cm (20 in) (Lowery, 1986). At birth, the average head circumference