appeared on the market which are programmed to beep at the prayer-times for different localities, and to pronounce a recorded prayer-call.
On the prayers in Islam see the article ‘Ṣalāt’ in the Encyclopaedia of Islam (2nd edn, Leiden, 1960 onwards). For an overview of Islamic timekeeping see the article ‘Mīḳāt’ in the Encyclopaedia of Islam, reprinted in King (1993).
On the definitions of the times of prayer as they appear in the astronomical sources, see Wiedemann and Frank (1926). For al-Bīrūnī’s discussion, see Kennedy et al. (1983:299-310). On the origin of these definitions see King, ‘On the Times of Prayer in Islam’, to appear.
On the procedures advocated by the legal scholars and in treatises on folk astronomy see King (1987a).
On the formulae for timekeeping used by the Muslim astronomers see the papers by Davidian, Nadir and Goldstein reprinted in Kennedy et al. (1983: 274-96) and the studies listed below.
On solutions (i.e. tables and instruments) serving all latitudes see King (1987c, 1988, 1993).
On the earliest known tables for regulating the prayer times and reckoning time of day from solar altitude, see King (1983d: esp. 7-11). On al-Marrākushī and his treatise see the section ‘Gnomonics’ in this chapter and also King (1983c: esp. 539-40 and 534-5). On the institution of the professional mosque timekeepers see King, ‘On the role of the Muezzin and the Muwaqqit in medieval Islamic society’, to appear in S. Livesey and J. F. Ragep, eds., Proceedings of the Conference ‘Science and Cultural Exchange in the Premodern World’ in Honor of A. I. Sabra, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Ok., Feb. 25-27, 1993, Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1995.
On the corpuses of tables for Cairo, Taiz, Damascus and Jerusalem, Tunis and Istanbul, see respectively, King (1973a; 1979: esp. 63; 1976), King and Kennedy (1982: esp. 8-9) and King (1977a). Each of these papers is reprinted in King (1987b).
On the auxiliary tables of Ḥabash, Abū Naṣr and al-Khalīlī see, respectively, Irani (1956), Jensen (1971) and King (1973b).
For an analysis of all available tables see King, Studies in Astronomical Timekeeping in Islam, I: A Survey of Tables for Reckoning Time by the Sun and Stars, and II: A Survey of Tables for Regulating the Times of Prayer (forthcoming).
On the Ottoman convention of reckoning sunset as 12 o’clock, see Würschmidt (1917). On the muvakkithanes, the buildings adjacent to the major Ottoman mosques which were used by the muwaqqits, see Ünver (1975).
Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. www.questia.com
Book title: Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science.
Contributors: Roshdi Rashed - Editor, Regis Morelon - Editor.
Place of publication: London.
Publication year: 1996.
Page number: 184.
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