Anti-Libertarianism: Markets, Philosophy, and Myth

By Alan Haworth | Go to book overview

Chapter 5

On freedom

I asserted earlier that Sir Isaiah Berlin’s account of freedom is misleading and confused. In this chapter, I offer some arguments to support this claim. Here, then, is the famous passage from Berlin’s ‘Two Concepts of Liberty’; the one echoed by Joseph and Sumption, as by so many others.

I am normally said to be free to the degree to which no man or body of men interferes with my activity. Political liberty in this sense is simply the area within which a man can act unobstructed by others. If I am prevented by others from doing what I could otherwise do, I am to that degree unfree; and if this area is contracted by other men beyond a certain minimum, I can be described as being coerced, or, it may be, enslaved. Coercion is not, however, a term that covers every form of inability. If I say that I am unable to jump more than ten feet in the air, or cannot understand the darker pages of Hegel, it would be eccentric to say that I am to that degree enslaved or coerced. Coercion implies the deliberate interference of other human beings within the area in which I could otherwise act. You lack political liberty only if you are prevented from attaining a goal by human beings. Mere incapacity to attain a goal is not lack of political freedom. This is brought out by the use of such modern expressions as ‘economic freedom’ and its counterpart, ‘economic slavery’. It is argued, very plausibly, that if a man is too poor to afford something on which there is no legal ban - a loaf of bread, a journey round the world, recourse to the law courts - he is as little free to have it as he would be if it were forbidden him by law. If my poverty were a kind of disease, which prevented me from buying bread, or paying for the journey round the world or getting my case heard, as lameness prevents me from running, this inability would not naturally be described as a lack of freedom, least of all political freedom.

(1969: 122-3)

-38-

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Anti-Libertarianism: Markets, Philosophy, and Myth
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface and Acknowledgements ix
  • Part I 1
  • Chapter 1 - Libertarianism - Anti-Libertarianism 3
  • Chapter 2 - Market Romances I 6
  • Chapter 3 - Reducibility, Freedom, the Invisible Hand 12
  • Chapter 4 - Market Romances II 32
  • Chapter 5 - On Freedom 38
  • Chapter 6 - The Legend of the Angels and the Fable of the Bees 58
  • Part II 65
  • Chapter 7 - Moralising the Market 67
  • Chapter 8 - Rights, Wrongs and Rhetoric 72
  • Chapter 9 - Visions of Valhalla 94
  • Part III 105
  • Chapter 10 - The Good Fairy's Wand 107
  • Chapter 11 - Hayek and the Hand of Fate 115
  • Chapter 12 - Conclusions and Postscript 130
  • Notes 134
  • Bibliography 143
  • Index 147
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