Distance Education for Teacher Training

By Hilary Perraton | Go to book overview

8

The Primary Teachers’ Orientation Course, Allama Iqbal Open University

Bernadette Robinson

In 1974 a new curriculum for all schools was introduced in the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. This implemented the 1972 Education Policy which had two goals: to make education more widely available and relevant to all sections of the population (‘the masses’), and to bring about a large-scale reform of teaching methods to make the education provided more effective (Government of Pakistan, 1972, p. 7). The new curriculum aimed to ‘emphasise learning of concepts and skills and encourage observation, exploration, experimentation, practical work and creative expression’, (Government of Pakistan, 1972, p. 7), and to move significantly towards a more practical, technical and scientific education. This curriculum reform grew out of continuing concern about issues of quality and relevance at all levels of education.

Improved standards were to be achieved by ‘implementing revised curricula, properly training and retraining teachers, and providing suitable instructional materials’ (Government of Pakistan, 1976, p. 5). The reforms affected primary, middle and secondary schools as well as teacher education and were the first major changes in education in Pakistan since 1960. This case study describes how distance education was used to update serving primary teachers in the new modernised curriculum, as one of the first programmes of the Allama Iqbal Open University.


THE CONTEXT

The task of providing a national in-service programme for teachers in Pakistan within a short time-scale is illuminated by a brief glimpse at the context. Pakistan is a large country of 796,000 km2 and widely varying physical features. The total population was 73.43 million in 1976, and 106 million in 1988, a population growth rate over this period of about 3.0 per cent per annum (Zaman and Qayyum, 1978, p. 57; World Bank, 1990, p. 228). Approximately 45 per cent of the population in 1976 was then, as now, under 15 years of age (World Bank, 1990, p. 228). The population is unevenly distributed between the heavily populated Indus Plains of the

-228-

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Distance Education for Teacher Training
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Acknowledgements ix
  • 1 - The Context 1
  • Pre-Service Initial Training of Teachers 19
  • 2 - Tanzania's Distance-Teaching Programme 21
  • References 41
  • 3 - The Zimbabwe Integrated Teacher Education Course 42
  • References 65
  • In-Service Initial Training of Teachers 67
  • 4 - Logos II in Brazil 69
  • 5 - Teacher Upgrading in Sri Lanka and Indonesia 95
  • References 132
  • 6 - Radio Education in Nepal 136
  • References 187
  • 7 - The National Teachers' Institute, Nigeria 196
  • 8 - The Primary Teachers' Orientation Course, Allama Iqbal Open University 228
  • Continuing Education 259
  • 9 - Educating Teachers at a Distance in Australia: Some Trends 261
  • 10 - Teacher Education at the Open University 287
  • 11 - The External Degree Programme at the University of Nairobi 316
  • References 341
  • 12 - The Correspondence and Open Studies Institute, University of Lagos 349
  • Notes 377
  • Quality, Effectiveness and Costs 379
  • 13 - The Costs 381
  • 14 - The Effects 391
  • Bibliography 405
  • Index 408
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