I am extremely grateful to many individuals for their encouragement in this project. Shirin Akiner at the School of Oriental and African Studies at the University of London, Zauresh Atakhanova at the Kazakhstan Institute of Management, Economics, and Strategic Research in Almaty, Lloyd Besant, Walter Falcon at the Center for Environmental Science and Policy at the Institute for International Studies at Stanford University, Suzanne Gaboury at EBRD, Richard Levine at the US Geological Survey, and Yelena Kalyuzhnova at the Centre for Euro-Asian Studies at the University of Reading each read some or all of the material I wrote at various stages in preparing this book and I am grateful for their continuing encouragement as well as their help and advice.
In addition, seminar participants at Oxford University, at the University of Reading, and at the Royal Institute of International Affairs asked many important questions and made many useful suggestions along the way. Columbia University Press generously gave permission to adapt a map from the 1969 classic study by Theodore Shabad, Basic Industrial Resources of the USSR, which identified the location of most major enterprise cities, mineral deposits, and rail lines in Kazakhstan (see Figure 6.2). Similarly, the International Energy Agency kindly provided the map locating the major oil and gas deposits in Kazakhstan as well as important pipelines (see Figure 9.1). I am grateful to all. It goes without saying, however, that I remain responsible for the errors in fact or in judgment that remain.