Leadership Development: Paths to Self-Insight and Professional Growth

By Manuel London | Go to book overview
Save to active project

360-Degree Feedback

360-degree feedback (also called multicource feedback) collects ratings from subordinates, peers, supervisors, internal customers, or some combination. In some organizations, just upward (subordinate) ratings are gathered. The ratings may be collected by paper-and-pencil questionnaire, computer, or telephone system. The survey may be administered annually, semi-annually, or quarterly. The results may be fed back to the managers in a variety of ways: in a written (computerized) report sent to the manager, during a workshop that explains how to use the report, or in a one-to-one session with an external coach.

The benefits of 360-degree feedback are that it contributes to individual development by providing information on worthwhile directions for learning and growth while it promotes organizational development by specifying dimensions of leadership behavior that are important in the organization. Also, it clarifies management's performance expectations recognizing the complexity of managerial performance—that leaders and managers need input from these different sources for a comprehensive view of their performance.

Sometimes the feedback is used solely for the development of the manager, and the results are not provided to the supervisor or others in the organization. That is, the intention is for managers to use the results to understand themselves better and consider areas for development and performance improvement. Other times, the results are used both for development and administration—that is, in addition to encouraging managers to consider the implications of the results for their development, their supervisors are given the results to help make decisions about the managers (e.g., whether a manager is ready for promotion or a pay raise). This is more threatening, of course. Also, when raters know the information may be used to make decisions about the manager they are rating, they may be more lenient (London, Wohlers, &. Gallagher, 1990).


Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
Loading One moment ...
Project items
Cite this page

Cited page

Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Leadership Development: Paths to Self-Insight and Professional Growth


Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

While we understand printed pages are helpful to our users, this limitation is necessary to help protect our publishers' copyrighted material and prevent its unlawful distribution. We are sorry for any inconvenience.
Full screen
/ 293

matching results for page

Cited passage

Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.

Are you sure you want to delete this highlight?