|• an approach aiming, first and foremost, at stabilization, mainly based on fostering regional cooperation and broad partnerships (‘regionality’); and|
|• an approach (in addition to, or instead of, the above), aiming at integration proper, i.e. at bringing neighbouring countries directly into the EU through a bilateral process based on strict ‘conditionality’.|
The first policy approach - stabilization as a goal, regionality as a means - is typical of the security policy of any regional power. It was first tentatively adopted vis-à-vis the crumbling Yugoslav Federation in the early 1990s, but with very little success. 1It was then applied to the Central European countries and the Baltic States - the Balladur Pact of 1993-5 (the first Stability Pact proper) - and, in both cases, with a significant degree of success. In South-Eastern Europe, however, the same approach bore little or no fruit until it was blended with the second approach, which envisages integration as a goal (however distant) and conditionality as a means (however strict). Furthermore, between 1994 and 1995 the EU signed so-called Partnership and Cooperation Agreements (PCAs) with Russia, Ukraine, Moldova and Belarus. With the exception of Belarus (owing to objections on the EU side to President Lukashenka’s policies), the agreements have been ratified by all the countries concerned and have taken effect: they combine a Western interest in bilateral political cooperation and dialogue on democratic foundations with an Eastern interest in economic cooperation, managed through the Union’s TACIS (Technical Assistance to the Commonwealth of Independent States) programme. Strictly speaking, however, these agreements cannot be considered as aimed at stabilizing the countries concerned. The PCAs with Ukraine and Russia were then supplemented by a ‘Common Strategy’ for each,
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Publication information: Book title: European Union Foreign and Security Policy: Towards a Neighbourhood Strategy. Contributors: Roland Dannreuther - Editor. Publisher: Routledge. Place of publication: New York. Publication year: 2004. Page number: 12.
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