This chapter reviews existing stress audit tools, particularly those suitable for the assessment of stress levels among blue-collar workers, which could be used in the first step of the risk management process. It provides comparisons in terms of administration, interpretation and availability of validation and normative data. The chapter also presents a case study of the assessment of job stress, using stress audit methodology.
There have been a number of organisational or occupational stress risk assessment instruments over the years. Most of these have been used for research purposes only (Zalaquett and Wood 1997), with a growing number of them being converted into use as an organisational risk assessment tool. The most notable one, which has been translated into over twenty languages and used both as an occupational stress research instrument as well as a risk assessment measure in industry and the public sector, is the Occupational Stress Indicator (Cooper et al. 1988), and its later development, the Pressure Management Indicator (Williams and Cooper 1996).
The OSI was the gold standard measure that was designed for research purposes, that is, to provide the research community with a standardised measure that could be used throughout the world for cross-cultural and occupational comparisons. There have been hundreds of studies published using the OSI (Williams and Cooper 1997). Reliability and validity studies largely support the