Hong Kong's Tortuous Democratization: A Comparative Analysis

By Ming Sing | Go to book overview

Notes
1 Studying Hong Kong from a comparative perspective
1
In 1995, Hong Kong’s GDP per capita measured in parity purchasing power already stood as the third highest one globally. The giant dynamism of the city-state has equally been reflected by the spectacular annual growth rates of 9.2 percent and 6.7 percent in GDP, scored during 1970-80 and 1980-92 respectively (World Bank, 1994:163).
2
What is “democracy”? Definitions of it abound (Held, 1987; O’Donnell et al., Pt. IV, 1986:13; Putnam, 1973:159-69; Sartori, 1987). Dahl has enumerated eight necessary conditions for democracy (Dahl, 1971:3) and many subsequent works of political science and sociology adopt his definition. Throughout this book, I will also use it. An abstract of the eight conditions suggests that democracy can be defined as a system of government fulfilling three conditions:
(a) Political competition: meaningful and extensive competition among individuals and organized groups (especially political parties) for political leadership roles, conducted regularly and peacefully.
(b) Political participation: a highly inclusive level of political participation in the selection of leaders and policies through regular and fair elections, such that no major (adult) social group is excluded.
(c) Civil and political liberties: freedom of expression, freedom of press, freedom to form and join organizations - sufficient to ensure the integrity of political competition and participation (Diamond et al., 1988, 89a: xvi).

Freedom House has incorporated much of Dahlsian’s definition into its two-category scores, i.e., political rights and civil liberties, to measure the level of freedom. Many cross-national researchers adopt the influential Freedom House data as a proxy to measure the level of democracy and regime status. I follow Diamond’s definition (1999:32-4) of “liberal democracy” - those regimes with the sum of scores of civil liberties and political rights no more than 5, and treating those with their total scores of no more than 5 as “full democracy. As Hong Kong has never achieved 5 or less between 1972 and 2001, I therefore stated that Hong Kong has never been a full democracy. Owing to the influences of Westernization on Hong Kong, Hong Kong’s prodemocracy movement leaders have conceived of “democracy” as defined by Dahl. They demanded a directly elected government, the setting-up of political parties, and the improvement of civil liberties and political rights. As political parties were allowed to operate since 1990, and as Hong Kong’s records in civil liberties and political rights were in general better than many authoritarian countries, Hong Kong’s battle of democratization has focused on the speed and extent of increasing directly elected seats for its legislature, and the timing for directly electing its Governor or Chief Executive. Finally, as the largest

-237-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Hong Kong's Tortuous Democratization: A Comparative Analysis
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 304

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.