The Greenwood Encyclopedia of International Relations - Vol. 2

By Cathal J. Nolan | Go to book overview

Suggested Readings:
D. G. Kirby, Finland in the 20th Century (1979); Tuomo Polvinen, Between East and West (1986); T. M. Rudy, ed., Charting an Independent Course (1998); F. Singleton, Short History of Finland (1989).
Finlandization. When small countries adopt a foreign policy of neutrality or subservience under Great Power pressure, but keep their internal autonomy. Derived from Finnish-Soviet relations, 1944–1991.
Finnish-Soviet War (1939–1940). The “Winter War.” In November 1939, for reasons still unclear, Stalin demanded that Finland cede that part of Karelia where the border came within 30 miles of Leningrad. Perhaps he was concerned about a German attack from so close a point, as he reportedly said: “We cannot move the city, so we must move the border.” His gross over-confidence in the Nazi-Soviet Pact concerning other borders partly belies that idea. In any case, he very much overestimated the capabilities of the Red Army, to which he had done so much damage in the Yezhovshchina. Finland adamantly refused to cede any portion of Karelia or to permit Soviet bases on its soil, as Stalin also demanded. Therefore, it was attacked on November 30, 1939, beginning a bitter winter campaign that badly damaged Russia’s relations with Britain and the United States, where Franklin Roosevelt was roused to deep, personal anger at Moscow. For nearly four months the Finns held out, scoring early successes and exacting a heavy price in Soviet lives and war matériel, but then falling back to defend the Mannerheim Line. The apparent weakness of Soviet arms made an impression on Hitler and may have hastened his decision to attack eastward before he had eliminated Britain and

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The Greenwood Encyclopedia of International Relations - Vol. 2
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iv
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • Acknowledgments xxi
  • F 530
  • Suggested Reading: 534
  • Suggested Readings: 547
  • Suggested Reading: 548
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  • G 601
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  • H 681
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  • I 752
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  • J 846
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  • K 884
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  • L 927
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