The Greenwood Encyclopedia of International Relations - Vol. 2

By Cathal J. Nolan | Go to book overview
the dangers of a second front. In the end, however, Soviet personnel had an overwhelming advantage: 200,000 Russians died compared with Finland’s losses of about 30,000, but Finland was forced to ask for terms on March 12, 1940. In the settlement it ceded to Russia that part of the Karelian isthmus Mannerheim had captured in the campaign of 1919–1920. On June 25, 1941, seeking to regain its territory, Finland entered the new war on the eastern front alongside Germany, which had attacked the Soviet Union three days earlier in the massive invasion known as Barbarossa. As Germany began to lose the war, 1943–1944, Soviet forces also punched a gap through the Mannerheim Line in 1944, and Finland was forced to make a separate peace and then turn its forces and declare war on Germany. It lost more of Karelia to the Soviets and agreed to provide Moscow with military bases and to support—or at least not oppose—Soviet foreign policy interests after the war. The new territorial and political arrangement was confirmed in a formal peace treaty in 1947.
Suggested Reading:
Carl van Dyke, The Soviet Invasion of Finland (1997).
firebreak. Military slang for the perceptual and psychological line between waging conventional and nuclear war.
fire control. Mechanical or electronic means by which targets are tracked and guns aimed. This is especially important to ensure accuracy for guns that are themselves in motion aboard ships, planes, or armored vehicles.
First Empire. The French Empire of Napoleon Bonaparte, 1804–1814. It included territories in Italy and as far north as the Baltic and as far east as Dalmatia.
first line. Top quality troops or equipment. See alsofrontline.
First Republic. France, from the deposition of Louis XVI in 1792 to the coronation of Napoleon. See alsoFrance.
first strike. A surprise attack that aims at achieving sudden victory or strategic superiority; for instance, Pearl Harbor. In theories of waging nuclear war, it is a surprise strike on an enemy’s missiles that aims to win by eliminating the enemy’s second-strike capability. Identifying potential first-strike weapons was a major source of contention in arms control talks during the Cold War. See alsofirst use.
first-strike capability. The ability to preempt enemy retaliation by eliminating all or most of its nuclear weapons, including its second-strike weapons. Seeking such a capability within a relationship characterized by assured destruction, such as existed between the Soviets and Americans during the latter decades

of the Cold War, was widely considered destabilizing. That may not be the case in which a large nuclear power is facing a state with but a few nuclear-tipped missiles or other weapons of mass destruction.

-548-

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The Greenwood Encyclopedia of International Relations - Vol. 2
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iv
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • Acknowledgments xxi
  • F 530
  • Suggested Reading: 534
  • Suggested Readings: 547
  • Suggested Reading: 548
  • Suggested Reading: 557
  • Suggested Readings: 571
  • Suggested Readings: 572
  • Suggested Reading: 573
  • Suggested Reading: 582
  • Suggested Readings: 583
  • Suggested Readings: 584
  • Suggested Readings: 590
  • Suggested Readings: 591
  • G 601
  • Suggested Reading: 604
  • Suggested Reading: 618
  • Suggested Readings: 624
  • Suggested Reading: 625
  • Suggested Reading: 636
  • Suggested Readings: 638
  • Suggested Readings: 645
  • Suggested Reading: 650
  • Suggested Readings: 651
  • Suggested Readings: 653
  • Suggested Reading: 655
  • Suggested Readings: 657
  • Suggested Reading: 662
  • Suggested Reading: 665
  • Suggested Reading: 668
  • Suggested Readings: 671
  • Suggested Readings: 675
  • Suggested Readings: 677
  • Suggested Readings: 678
  • H 681
  • Suggested Readings: 685
  • Suggested Readings: 687
  • Suggested Reading: 688
  • Suggested Reading: 691
  • Suggested Reading: 692
  • Suggested Reading: 694
  • Suggested Readings: 711
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  • Suggested Readings: 713
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  • Suggested Readings: 750
  • Suggested Reading: 751
  • I 752
  • Suggested Readings: 761
  • Suggested Reading: 773
  • Suggested Readings: 774
  • Suggested Readings: 777
  • Suggested Reading: 781
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  • Suggested Readings: 800
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  • J 846
  • Suggested Readings: 847
  • Suggested Readings: 872
  • Suggested Reading: 874
  • K 884
  • Suggested Readings: 892
  • Suggested Readings: 895
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  • Suggested Reading: 900
  • Suggested Readings: 904
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  • Suggested Readings: 916
  • Suggested Readings: 917
  • Suggested Readings: 925
  • L 927
  • Suggested Readings: 934
  • Suggested Reading: 935
  • Suggested Readings: 938
  • Suggested Reading: 952
  • Suggested Readings: 957
  • Suggested Reading: 963
  • Suggested Readings: 966
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  • Suggested Readings: 979
  • Suggested Readings: 985
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