The Greenwood Encyclopedia of International Relations - Vol. 2

By Cathal J. Nolan | Go to book overview

Suggested Reading:
R. Waites, Vanguard of Nazism (1952).
FRELIMO. The guerrilla organization that fought the Portuguese in Mozambique from 1964 and formed the ruling party after independence in 1975.
French and Indian War (1754–1760). A conflict between the American colonists and French troops and their Indian allies and one of just a few colonial conflicts to actually trigger a Great Power war (the Seven Years’ War). It was precipitated by French fortification of, and American advances into, the Ohio Valley. One expedition was led by a young George Washington. Loss of the Ohio threatened French claims to the whole interior of North America, as well as historic Indian lands, leading many tribes to ally with France. The fighting widened with the dispatch of British troops to aid the colonists in capturing the French frontier forts and to blockade and bar French relief. William Pitt (the Elder) vigorously prosecuted the war after 1757, forming an alliance with the Iroquois Confederacy. Victories came swiftly: Fort Duquesne (later renamed Pittsburgh) fell in 1758, and the great fortress at Louisbourg in Nova Scotia, gateway to Québec and the great St. Lawrence riverine highway into the interior of North America, surrendered in 1758. England pressed to victory in Québec at the Plains of Abraham (1759) and Montréal (1760), and in the Caribbean, India, and lastly in Europe. The surrender of Québec eliminated the French as a military force in North America, three years before the larger settlement came in Europe in the Treaty of Paris (1763). That fundamentally changed the balance of power in the New World. It also set the stage for grave disputes between the colonists and England that would lead to the American Revolution. Globally, however, the French and Indian War was properly regarded as a mere adjunct of the far more general and important Seven Years’ War.

Suggested Readings:
Fred Anderson, The Crucible of War (2000); Robert Leckie, A Few Acres of Snow: The Saga of the French and Indian Wars (1999).
French and Indian Wars (1689–1763). A collective term sometimes used—especially by American historians—about the extended conflict between France and England and among American settlers and Indians spanning most of the eighteenth century. It was a minor adjunct to the much greater wars in Europe sparked by the ambitions of Louis XIV, then of Frederick the Great, and between the French and British empires on a near-global basis, notably in India. To American colonists, the conflict was mainly a war of defensive

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The Greenwood Encyclopedia of International Relations - Vol. 2
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iv
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • Acknowledgments xxi
  • F 530
  • Suggested Reading: 534
  • Suggested Readings: 547
  • Suggested Reading: 548
  • Suggested Reading: 557
  • Suggested Readings: 571
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  • G 601
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  • H 681
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  • I 752
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  • J 846
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  • K 884
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  • L 927
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