Suggested Readings:W. J. Eccles, The French in North America, 1500–1783 (1998); E. P. Hamilton, The French and Indian Wars (1962).
|French Army mutinies (April–June 1917). A revolt behind the lines, and in places also in the front trenches, that followed the bloody French victory at Verdun over the course of 1916 and a failed French offensive at Chemin des Dames in April 1917 under General Robert Nivelle. Some mutineers followed the example of Russian troops who had voted with their feet for home and peace, but most had simply reached the limit of their endurance of suffering and refused to enter the trenches or fight anymore. About 30,000 French troops refused to take their places in the line. There was little to no violence against officers, however, and reforms introduced by Pétain—who replaced Nivelle—helped contain the problem. In all, nearly half the units in the French Army participated by refusing to take new offensive action, though most also proclaimed their willingness to hold the line against German attacks. Force was eventually used to repress the most radicalized units. Thousands were arrested and 412 were sentenced to death; 49 of those were executed “pour encourager les autres.” The mutinies rendered the French Army incapable of independent offensive action until July 1918, when it finally advanced in support of the Allied counteroffensive, which was already underway, and rolled up to the German border by October, ending the war in victory. Between the mutinies and the last attacks, most fighting on the western front shifted to the British-American sectors. In 1998 a row erupted in France when Socialist Prime Minister Lionel Jospin called for “rehabilitation” of the executed mutineers, but President Jacques Chirac rejected the initiative as “inopportune.” An outstanding and moving representation is director Stanley Kubrick’s 1957 film, “Paths of Glory,” which was banned in France as late as 1972. |
|French Cameroons. It was formed out of the German protectorate of Kamerun in 1919 and remained a French mandate and trusteeship territory, 1919–1961. It is now part of Cameroon. |
|French Community.SeeLa Francophonie. |
|French Congo. French colony and former name of the Republic of the Congo. |
|French Empire. The first French Empire was mainly in North America and the Caribbean, but with important holdings in India too. It was mostly the |
Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. www.questia.com
Book title: The Greenwood Encyclopedia of International Relations.
Contributors: Cathal J. Nolan - Author.
Publisher: Greenwood Press.
Place of publication: Westport, CT.
Publication year: 2002.
Page number: 583.
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