The Greenwood Encyclopedia of International Relations - Vol. 2

By Cathal J. Nolan | Go to book overview

G
G-3.See Group of Three.
G-5.See Group of Five.
G-7.See Group of Seven.
G-8.See Cartagena Group; Group of Eight.
G-10.See Group of Ten.
G-20.See Group of Twenty.
G-77.See Group of Seventy-Seven.
Gabon. Long a source of supply to the Atlantic slave trade, Gabon fell under informal French control in the late eighteenth century. In 1839 the French founded a free black colony at Libreville, but it failed by 1848. The Berlin Conference (1884–1885) confirmed France’s possession of a coastal colony in Gabon. France thereafter pushed its claims further inland, meeting prolonged resistance from the dominant ethnic group, ortribe, the Fang. In 1910 Gabon was joined to French Equatorial Africa. In 1940 Free French forces wrested control of the colony from Vichy officials. It became independent in 1960. Within a few years of independence the original Fang president was deposed and Gabon was dominated by the minority Beteke. It prospered as a result of its abundant natural resources, including oil, which attracted foreign direct investment

(mainly French). Gabon took the unusual position of supporting Biafran independence during the Nigerian Civil War. In 1968 tribal politics was could be double (bireme) or triple (trireme) oared. Viking long boats and later models added sails, but other than the great Viking ships most of these remained confined to coastal waters. Some were capable of short oceanic voyages, but they proved no match for the man-of-war and other large European sailing ships that came to dominate Ottoman, Indian, and Chinese waters after c. 1500. See also Lepanto, Battle of; slavery.

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