The Greenwood Encyclopedia of International Relations - Vol. 2

By Cathal J. Nolan | Go to book overview
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Suggested Readings:
Bruce Catton, U. S. Grant and the American Military Tradition (1954); Ulysses S. Grant, Personal Memoirs (1885); B. D. Simpson, Ulysses S. Grant (2000); Jean E. Smith, Grant (2001).
grapeshot. A type of artillery ammunition made of iron balls spaced around a wooden spindle and held by a cotton bag. When fired from a cannon, the flame and force of exploding powder consumed the bag and scattered hundreds of iron balls (usually weighing about a half-ounce each) throughout the enemy ranks. A 24-pounder cannon in the late eighteenth century fired grapeshot containing about 300 balls. This was devastatingly effective at close ranges against massed infantry or cavalry. See also canister; case shot.
grave breaches. A term that appears in the Geneva Conventions to mark major violations, which might be punishable as war crimes subject to international trial and universal jurisdiction, in distinction from minor breaches of the Conventions, which may be dealt with under national military codes or in national courts. The list of grave breaches is longest for willful crimes against civilian populations. The 1949 conventions broke new legal ground by making grave breaches subject to universal jurisdiction. See also aut punire aut dedire.
Gravelines, Battle of (August 8, 1588).See Spanish Armada.
Great Britain. (1) A large island off Western Europe. (2) Since the Act of Union in 1707, the formal name of the island power that brought Scotland and Wales (and minor offshore islands) under rule from England. From 1800 to 1922, “Great Britain” colloquially incorporated all of the island of Ireland in an enlarged constitutional union; after 1922 it retained only six of the nine counties of Ulster, and even then under the legal distinction and formal title United Kingdom ofGreat Britainand Northern Ireland.
Great Depression (1929–1939).See depressions, world.

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