The Greenwood Encyclopedia of International Relations - Vol. 2

By Cathal J. Nolan | Go to book overview
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Suggested Readings:
William Duiker, Ho Chi Minh (2000); Anthony Joes, The War for South Vietnam, 1954–1974 (revised ed., 2001); Nguyûn Khaăc Viên, Vietnam (1993); Marilyn Young, The Vietnam Wars (1991).
Chí Minh Trail. Construction began in 1959 on this complex of trails, depots, and bunkers ferrying conscripts and matériel from the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV, North Vietnam) to the Republic of Vietnam (RVN, South Vietnam). The route was at first little more than a dirt track, but by the 1970s grew into five main routes—some partially paved—capable of carrying tanks and heavy truck traffic and after 1972also an oil pipeline from the A Shau Valley to Lôc Ninh. It traversed eastern Laos and Cambodia, utterly disrespecting the neutrality of both countries. During the Vietnam War it was the main supply line for the Viêt Cong and later for DRV regulars moving into the South. It was the target of intense bombing and search-and-destroy raids by American and Army of the Republic of Vietnam forces. The United States dropped high-technology listening devices along the trail, which the Viêt Minh sometimes defeated by such low-technology means as hanging ammunition cans on string in off-trail areas to misdirect American bombing. The effort to cut the trail lay behind Nixon’s ordering of a secret, and controversial, incursion into Cambodia.
Hohenzollern. A north European dynasty with roots traceable to ninth-century Swabia. In 1165 the house split into two lines. The younger, Franconian line received the electorate of Brandenburg from Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund in 1415 and went on to found and rule the rising state of Brandenburg-Prussia—they acquired East Prussia in 1618. In 1849 the elder, Swabian line ceded all claims to the kings of Prussia. The Hohenzollern rulers were also the emperors of Imperial Germany, 1871–1918. A Rumanian branch of the family lasted from 1866 to 1947.
Holland.See Netherlands.
Holocaust (1933–1945). “Shoah.” In its primary sense, the Holocaust was the systematic persecution of the Jews of Europe perpetrated by the Nazis and their collaborators among “ordinary Germans” and other Christians and European peoples, culminating in the most calculated and methodical genocide in human history, the full horror of which is essentially ineffable and whose full explanation probably lies forever beyond human understanding. Some reserve the term exclusively for the virulent hatred and deliberate planning with which the Nazis hunted down and murdered Jews. There was a wider Holo-

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The Greenwood Encyclopedia of International Relations - Vol. 2
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