The Greenwood Encyclopedia of International Relations - Vol. 2

By Cathal J. Nolan | Go to book overview
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Suggested Readings:
Yehuda Bauer, Rethinking the Holocaust (2001); Raul Hilberg, Destruction of the European Jews, 3 vols. (1985); Michael Marrus, The Holocaust in History (1987); Elie Wiesel, Night (1960).
Holstein.See German Confederation; Schleswig-Holstein.
Holy Alliance. A compact among Russia, Austria, and Prussia, signed on September 26, 1815, at the behest of—and mostly to appease the manic moods of—Alexander I, of Russia. It was not an alliance so much as a vague promise to govern according to Christian principles, hence the exalted pretension of its title. Britain refused to join, as did the United States and the pope, though for different reasons. The Ottoman sultan was snubbed. Several small powers joined, some for cynical and others for defensive reasons. Because it utterly lacked enforcement mechanisms, it was bereft of real effect. The Holy Alliance should not be confused with the Quadruple Alliance or Quintuple Alliance, both substantial agreements that helped to underwrite the Concert of Europe and to which Britain did adhere. See also Simoén Bolívar; Crimean War; Monroe Doctrine; Münchengrätz Agreements.
Holy Land.See Christianity; Crusades; Hejaz; Jerusalem;Judaism;Islam;Israel; Palestine; Sovereign Military Order of Malta.
Holy Office.SeeInquisition.
Holy Places. Sites located mainly in old Palestine that are of historical spiritual importance to Christianity (Catholic, Orthodox, and Protestant), Islam, and Judaism. They include the Dome of the Rock, the Church of the Holy Sepulcher, the Wailing Wall (the remnants of the Temple of Solomon), and similar places. Which sect controls access to them has been an issue of great controversy in interfaith and international relations on numerous occasions. See also Third Rome.

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