|humint. Human intelligence. Any and all information secretly gathered from people, whether agents or informers. It is generally easier to provide disinformation through humint than elint or sigint. Hence, there is commonly a division within the intelligence community over humint. At the extremes, it is seen as either unreliable to the point of being useless or the most vital and incisive form of intelligence, when accurate. During the Cold War the Soviet Union made great use of humint because its primary target states in the West were open societies. The Western powers found it much harder to penetrate the Soviet Union with agents and turned instead to the areas where they excelled: sigint and other high-technology methods.|
|Hundred Days. (1) Europe (February 26–June 22, 1815): A frantic period marking Napoleon’s return from exile, reclamation of the title “Emperor,” a rallying of the army for one last effort to enforce more favorable peace terms, clumsy invasion of Belgium, defeat at Waterloo on June 18, 1815, and second abdication four days later. Although there was no chance that representatives of the Quadruple Alliance gathered at the Congress of Vienna would have allowed him to remount an imperial throne, the episode reminded all of the importance of Great Britain in continental affairs, of the definitive arrival of Prussia as a Great Power, and of the mutual need of the major powers to cooperate vis-à-vis France. It thus reinforced a determination to surround France with a cordon sanitaire of buffer states. (2) China (June 11–September 21, 1898): The Guangxu emperor issued 40 decrees that aimed at full modernization of the Qing dynasty and Chinese state. However, the Dowager Empress Cixi launched a palace coup to cut these short, confined the emperor to a corner of the Forbidden City, and executed the reformers. (3) United States (March–June 1933): Franklin Roosevelt passed 15 major pieces of social and economic legislation constituting much of the New Deal. Ever since, a silly political fetish has existed among American journalists (and some new administrations) under which major legislation is supposed to be passed within|
Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. www.questia.com
Publication information: Book title: The Greenwood Encyclopedia of International Relations. Volume: 2. Contributors: Cathal J. Nolan - Author. Publisher: Greenwood Press. Place of publication: Westport, CT. Publication year: 2002. Page number: 743.
This material is protected by copyright and, with the exception of fair use, may not be further copied, distributed or transmitted in any form or by any means.