The Greenwood Encyclopedia of International Relations - Vol. 2

By Cathal J. Nolan | Go to book overview

Suggested Readings:
Philip Lawson, The East India Company (1993); David Omissi, The Sepoy and the Raj: The Indian Army, 1860–1940 (1994); Percival Spear, ed., Oxford History of India, 4th ed. (1981).
Indian National Army (INA). A military force formed from deserters, prisoners of war from the Indian Army captured by the Japanese in Malaya and Singapore, and some nationalist volunteers. Many of its soldiers were badly treated by Japanese officers and were used as cannon fodder to spare Tokyo’s troops. It was nominally headed by Subhas Chandra Bose, but in reality it was tightly controlled by the Japanese military. It fought the British alongside Japanese forces, mainly in Burma, but did not achieve the capabilities needed to capture India from Britain, as Bose hoped. It crossed into India on March 21, 1944, approaching Imphal by early May but falling short of Bose’s political base in Bengal. It was driven out of India and surrendered in Rangoon in May 1945. The origins of the INA in betrayal and desertion caused the Japanese to mistrust it and regard INA troops as a collection of dishonorable turncoats and traitors; for the same reasons, the British and many Indians despise the INA. However, other Indians genuinely thought it represented an army of liberation, and to them Bose was a hero. When INA officers were tried in Delhi, 1945–1946, they emerged as popular heroes and were given suspended sentences.
Indian National Congress (1885–1947).See Congress Party.
Indian Wars (North America). Conflict between North American native tribes (or “Indians”) and various European settlers occurred over a span of some 400 years, from the sixteenth to the nineteenth centuries. In general, the French sent fewer settlers and so were both able and forced to ally with Indian nations such as the Huron, with whom—under Samuel de Champlain

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The Greenwood Encyclopedia of International Relations - Vol. 2
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iv
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • Acknowledgments xxi
  • F 530
  • Suggested Reading: 534
  • Suggested Readings: 547
  • Suggested Reading: 548
  • Suggested Reading: 557
  • Suggested Readings: 571
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  • G 601
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  • H 681
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  • I 752
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  • J 846
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  • K 884
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  • L 927
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