The Greenwood Encyclopedia of International Relations - Vol. 2

By Cathal J. Nolan | Go to book overview

Suggested Readings:
Dee Brown, Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee: An Indian History of the American West (1971, 2001); Robert Leckie, A Few Acres of Snow: The Saga of the French and Indian Wars (1999); Richard B. Morris, The Indian Wars (1985); Ian Steele, Warpath: Invasions of North America (1994).
Indian Wars (Latin America).See Aztec Empire; Brazil; Christopher Columbus; conquistadores; Hernando Cortés; encomienda; Guatemala;Inca;Jesuits; Maya; Mexico; Nicaragua; Peru; Philip II; requerimiento.
indicators, economic and social. Mechanisms that measure levels of economic activity or national development. Economic indicators include: business confidence, commodity price indices, consumer price indices, gross domestic product, gross national product, growth, industrial production, inflation,leading indicators, net domestic product, net national product, demand and jobs, aggregate prices and wages, producer price indices, retail sales, system of national accounts (SNA), and unemployment. Gauges of development include: health services; daily caloric consumption; the Human Development Index; energy consumption; infant mortality rate; life expectancy; literacy (general and adult); scientists, doctors, engineers, and other (useful) professionals per 1,000 population; percentage of boys/girls in primary and secondary education; percentage of the labor force in agriculture; sanitation; and standards of living. See alsoindustrialization; modernization.
indigenismo. A cultural, nationalist movement in Latin America prominent especially in the early decades of the twentieth century. It upheld preColumbian models of Indian societies as more “authentic” than the dominant Latin cultures of most Latin American countries. See also négritude.
indigenous peoples. The native peoples of colonized lands, primarily in Australasia, the Americas, the Arctic, and the South Pacific, but also China and Japan, Indochina, Siberia, and elsewhere. They tend to exist on the margins of modern economic and political life, though in some countries (among others, Canada, New Zealand, and Australia) by the end of the twentieth century they had won significant land claims settlements and legal rights. They have often been subject to genocide or near-genocidal policies. For instance, the natives of Newfoundland were hunted down and exterminated entirely; the conquests of the American west and Russian east were accompanied by ethnic cleansing and/or extermination of some natives; parts of South America were denuded of their indigenous populations by disease, but also mass murder. This still happens: in Brazil, in 1993, gold miners were charged with genocide for the deliberate killing of whole villages of Amazonian Indians, done to

undermine native land claims. Treatment of indigenous peoples has come under increased UNHRC and NGO scrutiny. See also Aborigines; Ainu; encomienda; Eskimo;Indian Wars;Inuit; Maori Wars; requerimiento; Siberia; slave trade.

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