The Greenwood Encyclopedia of International Relations - Vol. 2

By Cathal J. Nolan | Go to book overview
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Suggested Readings:
T. Cahill, How the Irish Saved Civilization (1995); Norman Davies, The Isles: A History (2000); R. F. Foster, Modern Ireland, 1600–1972 (1989); J. Lee, Ireland, 1912–1985 (1989); Connor Cruise O’Brien, Religion and Nationalism in Ireland (1995); Cecil Woodham-Smith, The Great Hunger (1962).
Irgun (Zvai Leumi). Founded by militant Zionists in 1937, this paramilitary organization used terror tactics against the British and the Arabs in Palestine. It was led by Menachem Begin after 1941. One of its most effective actions was to flog captured British officers, causing London to drop the practice of flogging Arabs and Jews. Just before the First Arab-Israeli War began, it participated in a massacre of Arabs at the village of Deir Yassin. Its membership later merged with the newly formed Israeli Defense Forces.
Irian Jaya. Formerly West Irian (or West Papua) and a Dutch colony. Indonesia placed severe economic pressure on Dutch property after 1958, when the Netherlands refused to resume negotiations over transfer of the territory to Indonesia. After United States mediation, Irian Jaya was ceded to Indonesia by the Netherlands in 1963. Ethnically Melanesian, and predominantly Christian, in the late 1990s agitation began among West Papuans aiming at independence from Indonesia.
Irish Civil War (1922–1923). After the proclamation of the Irish Free State, a diehard faction of the Irish Republican Army (IRA), led somewhat reluctantly by Eamon de Valera, refused to accept the settlement with Great Britain. That treaty partitioned six of Ulster’s nine counties to create a gerrymandered Protestant majority, but it also gave Home Rule to the southern 26, mostly Catholic counties. The youthful Michael Collins, who represented Ireland at the peace talks that led to independence, led the Free State’s armed forces against his

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