Suggested Readings:Benny Morris, Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881–1999 (1999); Howard M. Sachar, Israel and Europe (1999); Howard M. Sachar, History of Israel (1996).
|issue area. Any set of related issues that are usually viewed or dealt with collectively. |
|Italia irredenta. “Unredeemed Italy.” Ethnically Italian areas mainly in Austria and Yugoslavia that nationalists wished to join to Italy. To wit: Fiume, Gradisca, Gorizia, Istria, South Tyrol, Trentino, and Trieste. See alsoirredentism; revanchism. |
|Italian East Africa. A short-lived union of Italy’s east African possessions, Eritrea,Italian Somaliland, and the newly but only briefly conquered Ethiopia, 1936–1942 (subtracting liberated Ethiopia in 1941). |
|Italian Somaliland. An Italian protectorate since the late nineteenth century, it was the only trusteeship territory that was not a former mandate. Also unusual was that Italy, the former imperial power but also a defeated Axis nation, became the trustee power (from 1950). In 1960 it joined British Somaliland to form Somalia. See also First Abyssinian War. |
|Italo-Ethiopian War (1895–1896).See Abyssinian War, First. |
|Italo-Ethiopian War (1935–1936).See Abyssinian War, Second. |
|Italo-Turkish War (1911–1912). Under Prime Minister Giovanni Giolitti (1842–1928) Italy launched a nakedly aggressive, but also successful, war against the Ottoman Empire. It began with an Italian ultimatum (September 27, 1911) demanding the Tripoli (Libya) coast. Italy sent some 45,000 troops into Tripoli, which fell without a fight when the Turkish garrison fled. On October 23rd, however, Turkish and Arab units attacked the Italian perimeter. There was fierce fighting, high casualties, and atrocities on both sides. Italy in particular took reprisals for an Arab execution of some Italian prisoners of war, summarily executing thousands of Arabs. It then reinforced Tripoli with another 65,000 men. The war soon settled into a stalemate in which the Italians held the coast and cities but feared to foray into the country, and the Turks and their Arab allies remained unbeaten in the desert but could not recover the urban areas. Italy also occupied some small Turkish islands in the eastern Mediterranean. With even greater problems facing the Ottomans in the Balkans, where the Balkan Wars would break out in 1912, a peace was agreed in which Italy secured control of the Dodecanese and Tripoli. Italy then faced local guerrilla resistance in Tripoli and conducted a brutal war of repression there lasting into the early 1930s. This war also saw a pioneering effort by Italy to use military aircraft, in 1911. |
Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. www.questia.com
Book title: The Greenwood Encyclopedia of International Relations.
Contributors: Cathal J. Nolan - Author.
Publisher: Greenwood Press.
Place of publication: Westport, CT.
Publication year: 2002.
Page number: 839.
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