|King, William Lyon Mackenzie (1874–1950). Canadian prime minister 1921–1926, 1926–1930, 1935–1948. An isolationist in the 1930s, he supported British appeasement policy and opposed alliance with the Soviets against Nazi Germany. Nevertheless, he brought Canada into World War II shortly after the British declaration of war. Erring as always on the side of political caution, he avoided conscription until 1944 and even then left Canadian overseas units undermanned. Because of his anti-Communism, Canada did not open diplomaticrelations with the Soviet Union (a wartime ally from 1941) until 1943. He was forever offended at his exclusion from the councils of the Great Powers, where he believed Canada might play an intermediary role. Belatedly discovering untapped virtue in Moscow after the war, he refused to believe the existence of an atomic spy ring discovered in Toronto and Ottawa, and then he failed to press Russia about the matter. His diaries revealed a man subject to delusions of personal grandeur and steeped in obscure mysticism (he conducted regular séances). His foreign policies were reactive and seldom creative. It has been justly said that he never did anything by half measures that he could do by quarters. Canada matured as a nation as it passed through depression and war more despite, than because of, his long, dull leadership.|
|King William’s War (1689–1697). The North American phase of the War of the Grand Alliance, waged by England, its colonists, and its Indian allies against the French in New France. The French and their Indian allies invaded Maine, New Hampshire, and New York. American militia countered with an invasion that captured Port Royal in Acadia (Nova Scotia) but otherwise failed to meet its objective of capturing the key fortress of Québec. It was ended by the Treaty of Ryswick (1697), but the peace made there broke down four years later with the start of the War of the Spanish Succession.|
|Kirghizstan. Along with other parts of Central Asia (Inner Asia), the Kirghizia region was overrun in the Middle Ages by successive waves of Mongol and Turkic peoples. It was governed by various Muslim khanates until being invaded and annexed by Russia, in slices, in the 1860s. It was held in the Russian empire by the Red Army, which it fiercely resisted, during the Russian Civil War. It was incorporated into the Soviet Union from 1920 and suffered many of the same torments as other Soviet peoples, including the great famine of 1921–1923, collectivization, and five-year plans. It was given a nominal separate existence as the Kirghiz SSR in Stalin’s internal readjustments of 1936. It declared independence after the August 1991 coup attempt in Russia, but this was not widely recognized until the extinction of the Soviet Union in December. After that, under Askar Akayev, who governed it all through the 1990s, it was the most economically liberal of the Central Asian republics and the most open to foreign investment and trade. It was even praised by the International Monetary Fund for its far-reaching reforms. Although it is underdeveloped and poor, it has rich deposits of natural resources. Starting in 1999 it faced a fundamentalist insurgency sponsored by the Taliban in Afghanistan as well as an ethnic (Uzbek) uprising with connections to Tajikistan.|
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Publication information: Book title: The Greenwood Encyclopedia of International Relations. Volume: 2. Contributors: Cathal J. Nolan - Author. Publisher: Greenwood Press. Place of publication: Westport, CT. Publication year: 2002. Page number: 904.
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