The Greenwood Encyclopedia of International Relations - Vol. 2

By Cathal J. Nolan | Go to book overview

Suggested Readings:
Leslie Bethell, ed., The Cambridge History of Latin America (1984–1995); Thomas Skidmore, Modern Latin America (1997).
Latin American Free Trade Association (LAFTA). It was set up in 1960 (Treaty of Montevideo) in the hope of establishing a free trade area for Latin America within just 12 years. Its lack of success was largely a result of an overly ambitious timetable, a failure to distinguish among the levels of economic development of its member states, and rising debt and protectionism. Failure led to creation of the successor Latin American Integration Association.
Latin American Integration Association (LAIA). This organization was set up in 1980 as the successor to the Latin American Free Trade Association. It introduced more flexibility by dropping LAFTA’s precise deadline for success and formally differentiating among member states, ranking them according to levels of development. During the 1980s, members remained preoccupied with the debt crisis. The move toward hemispheric free trade then somewhat preempted LAIA, with signature of NAFTA and agreement in 2001 to devise a Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA).
Latin Monetary Union (1865).See monetary standards.
Latvia. This Baltic State was conquered (and converted to Christianity) by the Crusading knights of the Livonian Order in the thirteenth century. For the next several centuries it was a battleground for German, Swedish, and Russian princes and armies. It (Livonia) was conquered by Sweden in 1629, but most of its territory was taken by Russia from Sweden after the Great Northern War (1721), and it remained a province of the Russian Empire into the twentieth century. Latvia was again a battleground, for Russian and German armies, during World War I. After fending off the Red Army and lingering German forces, it enjoyed independence from 1921 to 1940. However, by 1934 hard times led to institution of an authoritarian regime. It was secretly assigned to the Soviet sphere of influence by the Nazi-Soviet Pact in 1939. Latvia was occupied by the Soviets in June 1940 and annexed in August. The Germans occupied it, 1941–1944, when Soviet control was re-established. The United States and some other Western countries never accepted the legality of the Soviet annexation. Instead, they maintained formal ties with a government-in-exile, which had an embassy in Washington throughout the Cold War. During the Soviet period, Latvia experienced high levels of Russian immigration and suffered under policies of Russification. In May 1990 it tried to assert its independence, but this was not widely recognized. During the August 1991 coup

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The Greenwood Encyclopedia of International Relations - Vol. 2
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iv
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • Acknowledgments xxi
  • F 530
  • Suggested Reading: 534
  • Suggested Readings: 547
  • Suggested Reading: 548
  • Suggested Reading: 557
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  • G 601
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  • H 681
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  • I 752
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  • J 846
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  • K 884
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  • L 927
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