Revitalizing Political Psychology: The Legacy of Harold D. Lasswell

By William Ascher; Barbara Hirschfelder-Ascher | Go to book overview

Endnotes
1
The UCLA group comprised of David Sears, James Sidanius, and their students exemplifies this commitment. See, for example, Sears, Sidanius, and Bobo (1999), and Sidanius, Feshbach, Levin, and Pratto (1997).
2
An exception was Moore (1989).
3
Excluding, of course, the political analysis still conducted in the psychoanalytic tradition. See, for example, the articles published in the Journal for the Psychoanalysis of Culture <6 Society.
4
This term is chosen to denote the dual ideas that political predispositions serve needs; that is, they are “functional” in the sense conveyed by Daniel Katz (1960) in his classic categorization of attitudes (knowledge, instrumentality, ego defense, and value expression), and because some of these arise from internal psychological needs. However, we do not presume that these psychological needs are necessarily ego-defense functions. Therefore, the definition is very close to what Smith, Bruner, and White (1956) termed externalization. They wrote:

Externalization. It would be all too easy to equate externalization of inner requirements with the classical conceptions of projection and displacement. These two mechanisms are two examples of what we mean by externalization. Externalization occurs when an individual, often responding unconsciously, senses an analogy between a perceived environmental event and some unresolved inner problem. He adopts an attitude toward the event in question which is a transformed version of his way of dealing with his inner difficulty. By doing so, he may succeed in reducing some of the anxiety which his own difficulty has been producing, (p. 43)

5
Such patterns are parallel to the neurosis, which reflects an accommodation to anxiety or some other painful emotional state, but in so doing is maladaptive in a broader sense and may well bring on unhappy repercussions.
6
We do not want to claim exhaustiveness, because the point here is to identify what is largely absent from contemporary political psychology, rather than to beg the question of the appropriate scope of useful psychodynamic functional theory within the definition per se.
7
Harold Lasswell elaborated on this point in “The Psychology of Hirlerism” (1933/1948), which is reviewed more fully later in this book.
8
Here we refer to the scientific positivism of Ernst Mach. See Mach (1897/1959). See alsoThayer (1968).
9
Cosin, Freeman, and Freeman (1982) described the scientific conception of Frank Cioffi, a prominent anti-Freudian, as follows: “A scientific theory consists essentially of related hypotheses each of which is empirically refutable, and there is an injunction upon scientists to expose their working hypotheses to (potentially falsifying) severe tests. Analysis of the generation of hypotheses is considered methodologically less important than their refutability” (p. 33).
10
Consider the model (elaborated later in this book) of individuals who suffer from severe deprivations in respect, but find that strong assertions of power gain them defer-

-167-

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