Runoff Elections in the United States

By Charles S. Bullock III; Loch K. Johnson | Go to book overview

Notes

Preface
1.
See Riker, Liberalism against Populism, pp. 74-77; Duncan Black, The Theory of Committees and Elections.
2.
Letter to the New York Times, September 11, 1990, p. A18.
3.
Merrill, Making Multicandidate Elections More Democratic. Prior to adopting the runoff, Alabama used a variant of approval voting in which voters indicated their first and second choices. If no candidate received a majority, the least popular candi- date was eliminated and his or her votes were allocated to the voters' second prefer- ences. This process of eliminating the relatively unpopular candidates and reallocating their votes continued until one candidate had a majority.

Chapter 1
1.
See Lush, "Primary Elections and Majority Nominations," p. 43.
2.
Alexander, "The Double Primary," p. 234.
3.
Black, "A Theory of Southern Factionalism," p. 601.
4.
See, generally, Ewing, Primary Elections in the South, pp. 4-7; Ladd, Ameri- can Political Parties, pp. 137-39; Key, Southern Politics, pp. 416-23. For a claim that southerners adopted the runoff to help preserve the racial status quo, see Kousser, "Historical Origins," p. 8. Earl Black's analysis of southern gubernatorial primaries found that from 1945 to 1964 the runoff generally resulted in the nomination of the more outspoken advocate of segregation. In some contests a candidate who ran as a racial moderate swerved to the right in the runoff and charged his opponent with be- ing soft on segregation. Since 1964, the black vote has become sufficiently large so that serious gubernatorial candidates have generally eschewed racial appeals (Black, Southern Governors).

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Runoff Elections in the United States
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Runoff Elections in the United States *
  • Contents *
  • Tables *
  • Preface *
  • Acknowledgments *
  • 1 - Introduction *
  • 2 - Myths of the Runoff *
  • 3 - Legal Challenges to the Runoff *
  • 4 - Race and the Runoff *
  • 5 - The North Carolina "Threshold" Experiment *
  • 6 - Runoffs and Voting Rates *
  • 7 - An Appraisal of the Runoff *
  • Notes *
  • Bibliography *
  • Index *
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