THE CLASSROOM CLIMATE
FOR OPTIMAL ENGAGEMENT
This section moves from motivational processes to the classroom context. A classroom in which students are engaged does not just happen; it is the result of interactions among students, teachers, and curriculum. The following three chapters focus on teacher expectations and confidence, the social climate of the classroom, and instructional components that affect engagement.
Teachers' beliefs about their potential effectiveness in teaching in various conditions and their expectations about abilities of diverse students have been identified as powerful influences on the achievement of students. An essential element is that students of diverse populations experience a shared sense of membership with the school and classroom. Challenges for the teacher are to establish conditions that allow for optimal work conditions and provide safety for all students while facilitating the development of personal responsibility. Three interrelated components comprise the classroom instructional focus: task, incentives, and evaluation.