11

INTELLIGENCE, IQ, AND RACE

Ashley Montagu

What is "intelligence"? The answer most people would give to that question would be, "What IQ tests measure." But as we shall see, IQ tests, whatever their proponents may claim, do not measure intelligence. The truth is that no one really knows what the structure of intelligence is, and therefore there cannot be anything even approximating a quantitative measure of intelligence, this abstraction of abstractions, that IQ tests purport to quantify. What is quite clear, except to IQ testers, is that many conditions enter into the making of the capabilities we call intelligence, and that without taking these factors into consideration such tests are quite valueless in providing a measure of "intelligence."

Psychologists have tried hard to reach some consensus as to what is to be understood by intelligence, but without success. Like myself, since my days as a student, in the early twenties, of Charles Spearman and his book on the nature of intelligence, 1 others have also found the unravelling of the structure of intelligence unaccomplished to the present day. The cumulative research during the last sixty years suggests that it would be a good working hypothesis to regard intelligence as constituted of a large assembly of highly varied, overlapping adaptive abilities or skills, rather than as a single faculty; that it is, indeed, largely the summation of the learning experiences of the individual.

As for the relation of the brain to intelligence, many a scientific

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Race and IQ
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