The Word as Scalpel: A History of Medical Sociology

By Samuel W. Bloom | Go to book overview

8
The Role of NIMH,
1946–1975

The path of medical sociology was not a smooth and easy one.

—Robert H. Felix,
first director of NIMH

At midcentury, the institutions responsible for higher education in the United States were poised for a radical transformation. The changes that followed the war appear at first to pick up and continue the prewar trends, but they were both more fundamental and more diverse. For example, the scientific function of the medical school that Abraham Flexner had recommended in 1910 had been gradually realized during the next two decades. By 1930, as Stevens has so clearly documented, “the faculties in the best schools had become scientific investigators. ” 1 However, the role of such faculty investigators did not radically change during the thirties. Support for research projects occasionally received earmarked foundation grants, but “in large part, medical schools made no distinction between teaching and research. ” 2 Following the war, the research function became dominant, reflecting a structural change that altered the social environment of medical schools in a way that no one had predicted, not even the ubiquitous Flexner.

Most obvious was the replacement of private foundation grants by the federal government as the main outside source of research support, but the significance of the change went beyond that. The primary sources were the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Some trace the origins of NIH to 1887 when a laboratory for bacteriological studies was created within the PHS. However, the contemporary model began only in 1930, and it was not until a congressional act in 1937 that NIH developed “specialist research programs focused on specific conditions or diseases. ” 3 At first these were predominantly on-site research and training at the national capital, but gradually extramural research grants to individuals and institutions were added. The latter grew rapidly to change the balance between the medical school functions of teaching, research, and service. This process started during the war: “An accelerated, focused program of medical research, sponsored both by private organizations and by various governmental departments for wartime needs, led to separate accounting for research in the schools, and thus to a separation of the research function from the regular expected role of teaching. ” 4

-155-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Word as Scalpel: A History of Medical Sociology
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 348

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.