Margaret C. Jacob, 'The Mental Landscape of the Public Sphere: a European Perspective', Eighteenth-Century Studies, 28, 1 (fall 1994), 95–113, p. 96.
See also Marvin B. Becker, The Emergence of Civil Society in the Eighteenth
Century: A Privileged Moment in the History of England, Scotland and France
(Bloomington, IN, 1994).
Important sources for the socio-cultural and political development of the
period under review include Janet Hartley, A Social History of the Russian
Empire 1650–1825 (London, 1999); Gary Marker, Publishing, Printing and the
Origins of Intellectual Life in Russia, 1700–1800 (Princeton, NJ, 1985); Nicholas
Riasanovsky, A Parting of Ways: Government and the Educated Public in Russia,
1801–1855 (Oxford, 1976); David Saunders, Russia in the Age of Reaction and
Reform, 1801–1881 (London, 1992); and Elise Kimerling Wirtschafter, Structures of Society: Imperial Russia's People of Various Ranks (DeKalb, IL, 1994).
See A. G. Mazour, The First Russian Revolution, 1825 (Stanford, CA, 1961).
Marc Raeff, Michael Speransky, Statesman of Imperial Russia, 1772–1839 (The
Hague, 1969), p. 291; L. P. Burmistrova, Provintsial'naia gazeta v epokhu
russkikh prosvetitelei: gubernskie vedomosti Povolzh'ia i Urala 1840–1850 gg.
(Kazan, 1985), pp. 39, 41–2. Most provincial gazettes emerged after 1838,
when governors began to follow instructions from the Ministry of the
Interior to publish such titles regularly.
W. Bruce Lincoln, 'The Problem of Glasnost' in Mid-Nineteenth-Century
Russian Politics', European Studies Review, 11 (1981), 171–88, p. 172.
Marc Raeff, 'Transfiguration and Modernization: the Paradoxes of Social
Disciplining, Paedagogical Leadership and the Enlightenment in EighteenthCentury Russia', in Hans Erich Bödeker and Ernst Hinrichs (eds. ), Alteuropa–
Ancien Regime–Frühe Neuzeit: Probleme und Methoden der Forschung (Stuttgart,
1991), 99–115, p. 109, quoted by Douglas Smith, Working the Rough Stone:
Freemasonry and Society in Eighteenth-Century Russia (DeKalb, IL, 1999), p. 58.
A. N. Radishchev, A Journey from St Petersburg to Moscow, ed. R. P. Thaler
(Cambridge, 1958), pp. 165–6.
Jay Jensen and Richard Bayley, 'Highlights of the Development of Russian
Journalism, 1553–1917', Journalism Quarterly, 41 (summer 1964), 403–15, 436,
Radishchev, A Journey from St Petersburg to Moscow, pp. 164–5, 171.
Sidney Monas, The Third Section: Police and Society in Russia under Nicholas I
(Cambridge, 1961), pp. 135–6. Besides its impracticality, the ban exposed the
authorities to ridicule because it included printed music.
See especially Charles A. Ruud, Fighting Words; Imperial Censorship and the
Russian Press, 1804–1906 (Toronto, 1982).
Monas, The Third Section, p. 136; V. G. Berezina, Russkaia zhurnalistika pervoi
chetverti XIX veka (Leningrad, 1965), p. 54.
A primary source for this development is 'Unichtozheniia masonskikh lozh
v Rossii 1822 g. ', Russkaia starina, 18 (March 1877), 455–79;(April 1877),
Saunders, Russia in the Age of Reaction and Reform, p. 155.
Lincoln, 'The Problem of Glasnost”, p. 173.