Appraisal Processes in Emotion: Theory, Methods, Research

By Klaus R. Scherer; Angela Schorr et al. | Go to book overview

6
Toward Delivering on the Promise
of Appraisal Theory
CRAIG A. SMITH AND LESLIE D. KIRBY

Appraisal theory promises a lot to the student of emotion. Although nominally a theory of the cognitive antecedents of emotion, the theory aspires to much more. In addition to describing the specific cognitions that elicit various emotions (e.g., Roseman, 1984; Scherer, 1984c; Smith & Ellsworth, 1985; Smith & Lazarus, 1990), appraisal theory promises to reveal much about broader issues in emotion psychology, such as: the kinds of situations and contexts likely to give rise to specific emotions for a particular individual (e.g., Smith & Pope, 1992) and the organization of physiological activity (both facial and autonomic) in emotion (e.g., Kirby, 1999b; Lazarus, 1968b; Scherer, 1986a, 1992c; C. A. Smith, 1989; Smith & Scott, 1997), as well as the motivational functions served by emotion (e.g., Frijda, 1987; Roseman, Wiest, & Swartz, 1994) and the role of emotion in coping and adaptation (e.g., Lazarus, 1968b, 1991b; Smith & Wallston, 1992).

The basis for these promises lies in at least two closely related assumptions. First, most contemporary emotions theorists view emotion as a coherent, organized system that largely serves adaptive functions (e.g., Ekman, 1984; Ellsworth, 1991; Frijda, 1986; Izard, 1977; Lazarus, 1991b; Plutchik, 1980a; Roseman, 1984; Scherer, 1984c; Smith & Lazarus, 1990; Tomkins, 1980). Thus there is assumed to be a rhyme and a reason to emotion. Specifically, emotions are posited to be evoked under conditions having adaptational significance to the individual and to physically prepare and motivate the individual to contend with the adaptational implications of the eliciting situation (e.g., Smith & Lazarus, 1990). As discussed in Schorr (a, this volume), appraisal has been proposed as the mechanism that links emotional reactions to the adaptational implications of one's circumstances. On this view, appraisal is an evaluative process that serves to “diagnose” whether the situation confronting an individual has adaptational relevance and, if it does, to identify the nature of that relevance and produce an appropriate emotional response to it (Lazarus, 1968b, 1991b; Roseman, 1984; Scherer, 1984c; Smith & Lazarus, 1990). Thus the second critical assumption is that appraisal, serving as the elicitor of emotions, plays a central role in the generation and differentiation of emotion.

Consideration of these assumptions makes the promise of appraisal theory clear.

-121-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Appraisal Processes in Emotion: Theory, Methods, Research
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page *
  • Series Introduction *
  • Preface vii
  • Contents ix
  • Contributors xiii
  • Part I - Introduction *
  • 1 - Overview, Assumptions, Varieties, Controversies 3
  • Notes *
  • 2 - The Evolution of an Idea 20
  • Notes *
  • Part II - The State of the Art *
  • 3 - Relational Meaning and Discrete Emotions 37
  • Note *
  • 4 - Integrating Theory, Research, and Applications 68
  • Notes *
  • 5 - Appraisal Considered as a Process of Multilevel Sequential Checking 92
  • Notes *
  • 6 - Toward Delivering on the Promise of Appraisal Theory 121
  • Notes *
  • Part III - New and Critical Perspectives *
  • 7 - What is the Dependent? 141
  • 8 - Exorcising the Homunculus from Appraisal Theory 157
  • Notes *
  • 9 - Putting Appraisal in Context 173
  • 10 - Contributions to a Process Analysis of Emotions 187
  • Notes *
  • Part IV - Socio-Cultural and Individual Factors *
  • 11 - A Complex Systems/stage Theory Perspective 205
  • 12 - The Social World as Object of and Influence on Appraisal Processes 221
  • 13 - The Role of Culture in Appraisal 233
  • Notes *
  • 14 - Applications of Appraisal Theory to Understanding, Diagnosing, and Treating Emotional Pathology 249
  • Notes *
  • Part V - Indicators of Appraisal *
  • 15 - Vocal Expression Correlates of Appraisal Processes 271
  • Notes *
  • 16 - Facial Expressions as Indicators of Appraisal Processes 285
  • Notes *
  • 17 - The Psychophysiology of Appraisals 301
  • Notes *
  • Part VI - Methods of Research on Appraisal *
  • 18 - Advanced Statistical Methods for the Study of Appraisal and Emotional Reaction 319
  • 19 - Present State and Future Perspective 331
  • Notes *
  • 20 - Toward Computational Modeling of Appraisal Theories 350
  • Note *
  • Part VII - Perspectives for Theory and Research *
  • 21 - A Review of the Issues 369
  • Notes *
  • References 393
  • Subject Index 450
  • Author Index 473
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 478

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.