Capitalists against Markets: The Making of Labor Markets and Welfare States in the United States and Sweden

By Peter A. Swenson | Go to book overview

NOTES

1. A Historical Puzzle
1
Sweden's infant mortality is lowest in the world, and the country ranks among the top two or three in terms of life expectancy. The United States ranks in the vicinity of Portugal on both counts. Statistical Abstract of the United States 1998 (Washington DC: U. S. Department of Commerce, 1998), 830–31; 1997 Demographic Yearbook (New York: United Nations, 1999), 347–54 and 480–500. On the possible link between material equality and overall health, see Richard Wilkinson, Unhealthy Societies: The Afflictions of Inequality (New York: Routledge, 1996); Ichiro Kawachi and Bruce P. Kennedy, The Health of Nations: Why Justice is Good for Our Health (New York: New Press, 2001).
2
On centralization and wage equalization, see Richard B. Freeman, “Labour Market Institutions and Economic Performance”, Economic Policy 6 (April 1988); Bob Rowthorn, “Corporatism and Labour Market Performance”, in Jukka Pekkarinen, Matti Pohjola, and Bob Rowthorn eds., Social Corporatism: A Superior Economic System? (Oxford: Clarendon, 1992);TorbenIversen, Contested Economic Institutions: The Politics of Macroeconomics and Wage Bargaining in Advanced Industrial Democracies (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998), esp. 36–37 and 72–77; and Michael Wallerstein, “Wage-Setting Institutions and Pay Inequality in Advanced Industrial Societies”, American Journal of Political Science 43 (July 1999).
3
For differing versions and discussions of the strengths and weaknesses of the power resources argument, see Alexander Hicks and Joya Misra, “Political Resources and the Growth of Welfare in Affluent Capitalist Democracies, 19601982”, and Evelyne Huber, Charles Ragin, and John Stephens, “Social Democracy, Christian Democracy, Constitutional Structure, and the Welfare State”, both in American Journal of Sociology 99:3 (November 1993).
4
David Rueda and Jonas Pontusson directly link labor power in the labor market (union density) with equalization in “Wage Inequality and Varieties of Capitalism”, WorldPolitics 52:3 (April 2000). On the relationship between labor's electoral power resources and “corporatist” or centralized bargaining, which in turn is associated with wage compression (note 1), see John Stephens, The Transition from Capitalism to Socialism (London: Macmillan, 1979), 122–3; Alexander Hicks and Duane Swank, “Politics, Institutions, and Welfare Spending in Industrialized Democracies”, American Political Science Review 86 (1992), 658–74, and Hicks, Social

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