Monacans and Miners: Native American and Coal Mining Communities in Appalachia

By Samuel R. Cook | Go to book overview
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NOTES

1. The Seeds of Colonialism
1.
This is based on detailed archaeological surveys of twelve Siouan burial mound complexes constructed in the Late Woodland Period (ca. AD 800-AD 1607). Hantman and his colleagues note several commonalties at all of these, including size, peculiar methods of construction, and physiographic location.
2.
Hale (1883) recorded the Tutelo delineation for themselves as Yesah, meaning "the People." Mooney (1894) made the correlation between this and many of the recorded names of Siouan tribes (e.g., Nahyssan). Quite possibly, most of the Siouan settlements referred to themselves as Yesah, but may have added appellatives to distinguish residence.
3.
Lederer wrote of the Virginia Siouans, "the Indians now seated here, are distinguished into the several nations of Mahoc, Nuntaneuck, alias Nuntaly, Nahyssan, Sapon, Managog, Mangoak, Akenatzy, Monakin, and so forth. One language is common to them all though they differ in dialects" (Alvord and Bidgood, 1912: p. 141).
4.
This is based particularly on prolific archaeological recoveries of maize and on the analysis of human bone found at the Rapidan Mound Site dating to the Late Woodland Period (Holland, Spieden, and Van Roijen, 1983), which reveals a diet highly dependent on corn.
5.
According to Lederer, "Every nation gives his particular ensigne or arms ... the Nahysannes three arrows" (Alvord and Bidgood, 1912: p. 143). Bev-

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