Many people have participated in this project in one way or another. If this listing is incomplete or does not do full justice to an individual's contribution, I apologize. To start with, I would like to express my gratitude to all the people who helped with the data collection. Starting with the experiments conducted in 1994 at UCLA, I greatly appreciate the efforts of Leila Moyari, Bonnie Lemon, and David Willis, which were directed toward running the subjects (to whom I also owe a debt) and organizing the data. Also with respect to the experiments, I would like to recognize the generosity of the National Science Foundation, Shanto Iyengar, and The John and Mary Merkle Foundation for their support.
The content analyses were conducted at UCLA as well as the University of Washington, and I would like to thank all the undergraduates at both institutions who performed the coding. I also owe a debt of gratitude to Vincent Hutchings who helped design and execute the coding scheme, and Tracy Sulkin, who provided invaluable research assistance during the completion of the coding project. Lance Bennett, the Shorenstein Center at the John F. Kennedy School of Government, and the University of Washington's Royalty Research Fund all supplied financial assistance to support the coding effort. I owe a special thank you to Mark Hunt, who took the lead in creating the data on Senate candidate positions.
Many friends, teachers, and colleagues provided insight and ideas during the data analyses and preparation of this manuscript. At UCLA, the site of my graduate education, I would like to acknowledge Susanne Lohmann, Stephen Ansolabehere, Brian Walker, Diane Klein, John Petrocik, Shelley Taylor, John Zaller, and, especially, Shanto Iyengar, my dissertation advisor and mentor. At the University of Washington, my current institution, I gratefully recognize Tracy Sulkin, John Wilkerson,