Redeeming the Communist Past: The Regeneration of Communist Parties in East Central Europe

By Anna M. GrzymaŁa-Busse | Go to book overview

Appendix A
The Content Analysis of Programs

The party program database used in Chapter 3 consists of programmatic documents issued by the parties, and program declarations at party congresses. Several existing accounts of party stances have relied on the views of party supporters or the evaluations of experts to determine the parties' stances.1 However, supporter views may differ considerably from the parties' stances. In fact, they cannot be assumed to correspond to either the party's official stances or its addressed constituency. Using supporter stances to measure party views also makes it impossible to determine whether the parties are responsive. Therefore, I emphasize content analysis of actual party programs and statements, as this method allows us to examine what the parties' actual messages were.

All programmatic documents available for each party after 1989 were coded in their entirety, translated by the author from the original language. Paragraphs in the party programs were the unit of analysis. This approach loses some reliability and accuracy, in comparison with coding sentences. It also biases the results toward the null hypothesis (that no change occurs in the party programs), since it may gloss over more minute changes within the program.2 Nevertheless, coding the party programs by paragraph perhaps best reflects the intentions of their framers, since most of the party programs examined were divided into paragraphs, each with a specific

____________________
1
Evans and Whitefield 1995. Kitschelt 1992. Huber, John, and Inglehart, Ronald. “Expert Interpretations of Party Space and Party Locations in 42 Societies, ” Party Politics, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1995: 73–111.
2
Krippendorf, Klaus. Content Analysis: An Introduction to its Methodology. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 1980. See also Holsti, Ole. Content Analysis for the Social Sciences and Humanities. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1969. Pool, Ithiel de Sola. Trends in Content Analysis. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1959. Rosengren, Erik Karl, ed. Advances in Content Analysis. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 1981.

-285-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Redeeming the Communist Past: The Regeneration of Communist Parties in East Central Europe
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 341

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.