The Political Economy of International Trade Law: Essays in Honor of Robert E. Hudec

By Daniel L. M. Kennedy; James D. Southwick | Go to book overview

10
The Uruguay Round North–South Grand Bargain:
Implications for future negotiations
SYLVIA OSTRY

The Uruguay Round Grand Bargain

Prior to the Uruguay Round developing countries negotiated mainly to secure unreciprocated access to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries' markets. Most lacked the expertise and analytical resources for trade policy-making but that really didn't matter much because the focus of negotiations was on border barriers for industrial products, and also because agriculture was largely excluded. The tried and true General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) model of reciprocity worked well as the negotiations were led by the United States and managed by the transatlantic alliance with the European Community. The Cold War contained severe trade friction eruptions and all was well with the world as trade grew faster than output and each fed the other. True, in the 1970s noises offstage about a New International Economic Order could be faintly heard in Geneva but barely in Washington or Brussels. The so-called Third World was largely ignored as a player in the multilateral trading system.

The Uruguay Round was a watershed in the evolution of that system. For the first time, agriculture was at the center of the negotiations and the European effort to block the launch of the negotiations to avoid coming to grips with the Common Agricultural Policy went on for half a decade. This foot-dragging also spawned a new single-interest coalition–the Australian-led Cairns Group, which included Southern countries from Latin America and Asia determined to ensure that liberalization of agricultural trade would not be relegated to the periphery by the Americans and the Europeans as it always had been in the past. A significant event at the 1988 mid-term ministerial meeting in Montreal underlined this change when the Latin American members of the Cairns Group responded to an announcement by the US and European Community (EC) negotiators that, although there was no agreement on agriculture, all the other issues agreed at the meeting could go ahead, by rejecting all the agreed issues until the agricultural disputes were tackled. The meeting was adjourned, not terminated (this was Montreal, not Seattle), to be followed by another six years of hard slogging.

But the role of a group of developing countries, tagged the G10 hardliners and led by Brazil and India, was in many ways even more important in the Uruguay Round's transformation of the system. The G10 were bitterly opposed to the

-285-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Political Economy of International Trade Law: Essays in Honor of Robert E. Hudec
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 696

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.