Louis Riel: Insanity and Prophecy
Thomas Flanagan

I am indebted to my colleagues Howard Palmer (History) and W. R. Blair (Psychology) for reading the paper and making comments which have been most helpful in the revision. It is a pleasure also to acknowledge the financial support of my research which has been provided by the National Museum of Man and the Canada Council.

The following articles are by psychiatric specialists: Edouard Desjardins and Charles Dumas, "Le complexe médical de Louis Riel", L'Union médicale du Canada, no. 99, 1970, pp. 1656- 1661, 1870-1878; "The Life and Death of Louis Riel", Canadian Psychiatric Association Journal, no. 10, 1965, pp. 244-264 (articles by E. R. Markson, Cyril Green- land, R. E. Turner); C. K. Clarke, "A Critical Study of the Case of Louis Riel", Queen's Quarterly , no. 12, 1905, pp. 379-388; no. 13, 1905, pp. 14-26; Daniel Clark, "A Few Canadian Cases in Criminal Courts in Which the Plea of Insanity was Presented", Trans- actions of the American Medico- Psychological Association , no. 2, 1895, pp. 183-190; Clark, "A Psycho-Medical History of Louis Riel", American Journal of In- sanity, no. 44, July 1887-88, pp. 33-51; W. W. Ireland, Through the Ivory Gates, Edinburgh, 1889, pp. 229-264; H. Gilson, "Etude sur l'état mental de Louis Riel", L'Encéphale , no. 6, 1886, pp. 51-60; Drs. Bourque & Gil- son, "La folie de Riel et la justice anglaise", L'Union médicale du Canada, 1885, pp. 561-4. Two studies by laymen are: Olive Knox, "The Question of Louis Riel's Insanity", Papers Read Before the Historical and Scien- tific Society of Manitoba , Series III, no. 6, 1951, pp. 20-34; Frank Anderson, "Louis Riel's Insanity Reconsidered", Saskatchewan History, no. 3, 1950, pp. 104-110.
For example: G. F. G. Stanley, Louis Riel, Toronto, 1963, pp. 222-28; E. B. Osler, The Man who Had to Hang, Toronto, 1961, pp. 171 ff; Hartwell Bowsfield, Louis Riel: The Rebel and the Hero, Toronto, 1971, pp. 75-78.
Thomas S. Szasz, The Myth of Mental Illness, New York, 1961; Law, Liberty, and Psychiatry , New York, 1963; The Manufac- ture of Madness, New York, 1970.
Courrier du Canada, June 11, 1885. Partial text of a letter writ- ten by Riel at Beauport asylum. The original is missing.
See particularly "Louis 'David' Riel: Prophet, Priest-King, In- fallible Pontiff", Journal of Canadian Studies, no. 9, August, 1974, pp. 15-25. See also "Louis Riel's Religious Beliefs: A Letter to Bishop Taché", Saskatchewan History, no. 27, Winter; 1974, pp. 15-28; "The Mission of Louis

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