Greece in the European Union

By Dionyssis G. Dimitrakopoulos; Argyris G. Passas | Go to book overview

Notes
1
In fact, the latter can be a consequence of the former; however, Europeanisation can also produce divergence (Radaelli 2000:6).
2
We use the term nominal convergence rather than the broader notion of convergence in policy outcomes that denotes compliance with EU legal requirements (Börzel and Risse 2000:11). Nominal convergence is by definition convergence in outcomes; thus, Member States retain some discretionary power with regard to the means of how to ensure compliance.
3
The term policy regime refers to the pattern of policy which policy-makers pursue over the long run: the goals that they prioritise, their conception of how the economy works so as to affect those goals and the measures they rely on to influence the economy so as to achieve those goals (Martin 2000:3). It is obvious that the nature of the organisational arrangements that are embodied in a regime (and particularly the breadth and intensity of its compulsory elements) is a crucial factor for its success. However, the importance of the informal dimension is far from negligible. Since economic actors make their decisions in the light of their policy expectations, the existence of a policy regime, regardless of its institutionalisation, reduces their room for manoeuvre. It can be argued that a policy regime is the common thread that runs through the individual choices of all economic actors.
4
The aim of this strategy is to improve the efficiency of the labour markets by improving employability, entrepreneurship, adaptability of businesses and their employees, and equal opportunities for men and women in finding gainful employment.
5
Employment guidelines are ‘drawing on the experience built up in the multilateral surveillance of economic policies … The idea is … to create for employment, as for economic policy, the same resolve to converge towards jointly set, verifiable, regularly updated targets’ (European Council 1997b: 1).
6
The Stockholm European Council was the first of the annual spring meetings of the European Council that henceforth will be dedicated exclusively to economic and social issues.
7
These are the scoreboards on the implementation of internal market legislation, the follow-up of the Social Agenda and innovation.
8
This is illustrated by the launch of numerous initiatives in the field of social policy - the most ambitious being the strategy on building new European labour markets by 2005.
9
In other words, there are inner and outer circles in economic and monetary co-operation (Begg and Hodson 2001). According to Ardy (2000:1), the emerging EMU policy regime combines two distinct approaches to policy-making. On the one hand, the EU Member States have resorted to the use of legal instruments in order to bind the behaviour of the participants in the process. On the other hand, the European actors attempt to shape a value system by striving to achieve a consensus on what is required in economic policy through soft co-ordination.
10
Furthermore, reliance on the monetary pillar may no longer be advisable; in fact, its credibility might have been undermined by the recent adjustments to money supply figures (CEPS Macroeconomic Policy Group 2001).
11
The EMU fiscal constraint is added to poor intra-European geographical mobility, lack of fiscal harmonisation and a small EU budget devoid of a stablilisation function (and having a low and relatively haphazard redistributive impact) (Andreou 2001).
12
For example, recognition and decision lags.
13
The danger of moral hazard is often highlighted. According to this argument, the existence of an inter-regional (and, in the case of EU, inter-country) system of

-105-

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Greece in the European Union
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Illustrations vii
  • Series Editor’s Preface xi
  • Acknowledgements xiii
  • Part I - Introduction 1
  • 1 - Greece 3
  • Part II - Distributive and Redistributive Policies 17
  • 2 - The Common Agricultural Policy in the Greek Context 19
  • 3 - Greek Regional Policy and the Process of Europeanisation, 1961-2000 35
  • Part III - Regulative Policies 49
  • 4 - The Implementation of Eu Environmental Policy in Greece 51
  • 5 - Eu Social Regulation in the Greek Context 61
  • Part IV - Constituent Policies 75
  • 6 - Greek Foreign Policy Since 1974 77
  • 7 - Greece and Economic and Monetary Union 86
  • Notes 105
  • Part V - Epilogue 111
  • 8 - From Accession to the Euro 113
  • 9 - Conclusion 139
  • References 148
  • Index 162
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