Chronology of the Events of 410–406
The most conspicuous shortcoming of Xenophon's Hellenica as a continuation of Thucydides' history of the Peloponnesian War is its lack of a clear chronology of events. This is not the place to discuss such indicators of dates as are found in the first two books of Xenophon's Hellenica (see Henry 1966, 39–45; Krentz 1989b, 11–14). We need only note that, based on Xenophon's account, scholars have offered various chronologies for the events between the two relatively secure points, the battle of Cyzicus (early spring 410: Diodorus 13.49.2) and the trial of the generals after the battle of Arginusae (fall 406, time of the Apatouria: Xenophon Hellenica 1.7.8). The central dispute involves the date of Alcibiades' return to Athens (Xenophon Hellenica 1.4.8–21). Scholars following a “high” chronology place it in 408 (Meyer 1901, vol. 4, 616–19; Busolt 1904, vol. 3.2, 1529–32); but the prevailing opinion of the past century of scholarship has followed a “low” chronology, placing it in 407 (Beloch 1914, vol. 2.1, 394–402, 413–21, 1916, vol. 2.2, 242–54, and Ferguson 1927 have been influential; Underhill 1900, xxxvi-xlii, reviews the controversy in the previous century).
Misgivings over aspects of this “low” chronology have been quietly noted by its staunch defenders (Andrewes 1953, 2 n. 1; Lewis 1977, 126 n. 112; Kagan 1987, 297–98 n. 21), and more recently elements of it have been reappraised (Robertson 1980c; Krentz 1988–1989). The date of Thrasyllus' departure for Ionia (Xenophon Hellenica 1.2.1), placed in 409 by most proponents of the “low” chronology, has increasingly been placed in 410 (Robertson, Krentz, Ostwald 1987, 388), as it is here (see chapter 6, with evidence discussed in notes 23 and 26). Movement of Thrasyllus' campaign up or down by a year has the effect of moving all of the events in the Hellespont that follow, at least until the surrender of Chalcedon and Byzantium.
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Publication information: Book title: The School of History: Athens in the Age of Socrates. Contributors: Mark Munn - Author. Publisher: University of California Press. Place of publication: Berkeley, CA. Publication year: 2000. Page number: 335.
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