Accademia di Santa Cecilia, Rome Founded in c. 1566 as the Congregazione dei Musici de Roma, it was renamed in c. 1839. It held meetings to discuss and perform music, and in 1877 became the main conservatory in Italy, the Conservatorio di Musica 'Santa Cecilia'.
Akademie der Künste, Berlin The first chair of music was created in 1809, and Zelter was appointed to supervise the city's music education. A series of masterclasses in composition was established, in which composers such as Meyerbeer, Bruch and Busoni participated. In 1869 the Hochschule für Musik was founded as part of the Akademie, under the direction of Joachim; from 1872 staff and students gave public recitals and orchestral concerts.
Allgemeiner Deutscher Cäcilienverein, Bamberg Founded in 1868 by Witt to promote the practical aspect of the reform of German Roman Catholic church music, it was accorded papal ratification in 1870, and became a model for similar organisations in other countries, including Belgium, Poland, Hungary and North America. The Caecilian movement as a whole promoted a historical understanding of the liturgy and focused on medieval chant tradition, thus reinforcing the demarcation between the church and contemporary developments in the arts.
Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung, Leipzig Founded in 1798 by the publishers Breitkopf & Härtel, it was noted for its breadth of coverage and literary excellence. The division of its