Transnational Organized Crime and International Security: Business as Usual?

By Mats Berdal; Mónica Serrano | Go to book overview

Notes
1
If it were possible to home-grow cocaine, like marijuana, the transnational crime patterns for North America might look quite different.
2
Even in the European Community, where one can obtain corrupt or inefficient guardianship, stamping of documentation may not require actual crossing of borders, but merely the appearance thereof—entailing, in effect, virtual globalization of crime.
3
The extent to which the private sector acts homogeneously or has objective and subjective homogeneous interests might repay some attention.
4
There may be other reasons for seeking to distinguish the sets of acts and actors, for example, to diminish the spread of extraordinary powers used against organized crime to other areas of criminal law. However, it may not always work this way. Levi (1998a) has pointed to the ways in which the very fact that financial criminals are defined as being in a different category from other criminals enables tougher powers of compulsory testimony to be wielded against them, though this is diminishing as the European Convention on Human Rights begins to generate procedural equivalence, even in Britain under the Human Rights Act of 2000.
5
A “419” letter is named after Section 49 of the Nigerian criminal code and refers to a class of frauds in which advanced fees are obtained by deception from people who think they are going to help someone.
6
The term “residence” is used in a nontechnical sense. There are many disparities in what countries consider to be appropriate criteria for defining residence for tax purposes.
7
Large-denomination Euro and dollar notes make hiding and transporting easier.

-66-

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