Solidarity Blues: Race, Culture, and the American Left

By Richard Iton | Go to book overview

NOTES

Chapter One
1.
Wilentz, "Against Exceptionalism," p. 18.
2.
Ibid., p. 3.
3.
Fredrickson, "From Exceptionalism to Variability," pp. 588-89.
4.
Or in Wilentz's terms, "events and movements." See Wilentz, "Against Exceptional- ism," p. 5. Examples of analysts who have approached the question in the same manner are, as already mentioned, Wilentz, Chants Democratic; Voss, Making of American Exception- alism; Salvatore, Eugene V. Debs; Shannon, Decline of American Communism; and Diggins, American Left.
5.
Wilentz, "Against Exceptionalism," p. 3. For a comparative analysis of some of the public goods listed in this paragraph, see Leichter, Comparative Approach to Policy Analy- sis; Heidenheimer, Heclo, and Teich, Comparative Public Policy; Headey, Housing Policy; Kimball, Disconnected; Piven and Cloward, Why Americans Don't Vote; and Kennett and Anderson, Gun in America.
6.
For some interesting examples of organic leftist politics emerging out of mainstream popular culture, see Denselow, When the Music's Over.
7.
Neither the United States nor the South are static entities. The United States con- tinues to change in terms of its demographic composition, and external conditions and developments (for example, globalization, cultural convergence, the image consciousness that maintaining foreign policy credibility can involve) present ongoing opportunities for a "different" America.
8.
Berelson, Lazarsfeld, and McPhee, Voting, p. 209.
9.
The three major parties of the left currently operating in the United States—the Greens (which has had some impact on political life in the state of New Mexico), the New Party, and the Labor Party—have yet to attract significant support from voters. For a more detailed discussion of the French exception, see Chapter 2.
10.
Rose, "How Exceptional is the American Political Economy?," p. 101.
11.
On the other hand, the tax burden the American government places on its citizens is also the lowest among its Western counterparts. For 1994, government tax revenues repre- sented 58.6 percent of Denmark's gross domestic product (GDP), 56.2 percent of Sweden's GDP, 55.2 percent of Norway's GDP, and 54 percent of Finland's, with the Netherlands falling at 51.2 percent; Belgium, 50.0 percent; France, 49.5 percent; Austria, 48 percent; Italy, 46.3 percent; Germany, 46.1 percent; Canada, 42 percent; Spain, 39.5 percent; Britain, 36.4 percent; and the United States, 31.6 percent. See Nathaniel C. Nash, "Europeans Brace Themselves for Higher Taxes," New York Times, February 24, 1995.
12.
Turner suggested that "the most important effect of the frontier [on societal values and inclinations] has been in the promotion of democracy. . . . [T]he frontier is productive of individualism . . . [and] frontier individualism has from the beginning promoted democ-

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