In this book the personal names of Asian men and women are usually given with family name first, for example, ZangJian. One exception is that the Asian authors of chapters in this book are listed by given name and then family name, for example, Jian Zang, in the Contents and on the chapter opening pages.
It is customary for scholars of Japan to refer to famous historical and literary figures by their first names. Hence Tsuda Ume is often called Ume. The family name can be ascertained from context.
All references to age in this book are by Asian reckoning, which assumes a person to be one year old at birth.
Chinese names and terms, when cited in the text, appear in the Pinyin system of romanization. We have not, however, changed the names in the WadeGiles system that appear in published book titles. Hence in the text we may speak of the “Family Instructions of the Yan Clan” compiled by Yan Zhitui. The standard English translation of this text, given in the notes, reads “Family Instructions of the Yen Clan” by Yen Chih-t'ui.
Korean names and terms appear in the McCune-Reischauer system. Exceptions are made for contemporary persons who prefer their names to be romanized in their own personal fashion. Thus Hai-soon Lee instead of Hyesun Yi.
We use a standard list of English titles for the Confucian classics and didactic books across the region. Standardized titles allow the reader to see, for instance, that the Classic of Filial Piety was popular in China, Korea, and Japan. It does not automatically mean, however, that the texts translated and published in Korea and Japan are the same as the Chinese classic bearing the same name.
Translations of Chinese official titles follow those in Charles O. Hucker, A Dictionary of Official Titles in Imperial China (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1985). Translations of Korean and Japanese titles follow conventional usage.